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Lab Practical #2

Exercise 39, 58, 59

What is the endocrine system consisted of? ductless glands that act together with parts of the nervous system to help control body activities
What do the endocrine system secrete and where? secrete regulatory molecules called hormones into the internal environment of interstitial fluid
What CELL does the hormone influence? When hormones are transported into the blood, they influence target cells
Once the hormones are at the target cells, what do they do? the hormones bind to receptors, resulting in the activation processes leading to functional changes within the target cells.
what do hormones influence? rate of metabolic reactions, the transport of substances through cell membranes, regulation of water and electrolyte balance, and many other functions
what transports the hormones? blood
another name for the pituitary stalk infundulum
another name for the pituitary gland hypophysis
another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland adenohypophysis
another name for the posterior lobe neurohypophysis
another name for the adrenal glands suprarenal glands
What do paracrine secretions influence? neighboring cells
What do autocrine secretions influence? the secreting cell itself
secretions of endocrine glands are usually controlled b what feedback system? negative feedback system
What is a result of the endocrine gland's negative feedback? the concentrations of hormones in body fluids remain relatively stable, although they will fluctuate slightly within a normal range
Where is the pituitary gland located? in sella turcica of sphenoid bone
What does the anterior lobe do and what does it appear like? makes hormones and appears glandular
what does the posterior lobe do and what does it appear like? stores and releases hormones made by hypothalamus and is nervous in appearance
acidophil cells pink-stained granules located in anterior lobe
basophil cells blue-stained granules located in anterior lobe
What are acidophil cells and basophil cells and what do they do? they are hormone-secreting cells that secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)
What does the posterior lobe store and releases? antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin (OT)
where are the hormones in the posterior lobe synthesized? in the hypothalamus
In the thyroid gland, what are the cells forming the wall of a follicle? simple cuboidal cells
What do the cells of the thyroid gland secrete? thyroid hormone (T3 and T4)
what do the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland secrete? calcitonin
What do the chief cells secrete in the parathyroid gland? secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)
what are the most noted corticosteroids secreted from the Adrenal gland? aldosterone from zona glomerulosa, cortisol from zona fasciculata, estrogens and androgens from zona reticularis
What does the medulla cells of the adrenal gland secrete? epinephrine and norepinephrine
What does the pancreas gland consists of ? largely of deeply stained exocrine cells arranged in clusters around the secretory ducts. These exocrine cells (acinar) cells secrete pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes
Another name for pancreatic islets islets of Langerhans
What do the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) represent? the endocrine portion of pancreas --> beta cells, alpha cells, and delta cells
What do the beta cells secrete? insulin
what do the alpha cells secrete? glucagon
What do the delta cells secrete? somatostatin
The organs of the MALE reproductive system are specialized to do what? produce and maintain the male sex cells, to transport these cells together with supporting fluids to female reproductive tract, and produce and secrete male sex hormones
What provides a lower temperature necessary for sperm production and storage? scrotum
Within the testes, what produces sperm (spermatozoa) by spermatogenesis? the seminiferous tubules
Within the testes, what produces testosterone and releases it for transport in the bloodstream? interstitial cells
What does testosterone influence? sex drive and development of secondary sex characteristics
What is the rete testis? A tubular network which joins the tightly coiled epididymis through efferent ductules for sperm to enter
Where is immature sperm stored and nourished before their maturation? within head, body, and tail of epidiymis
Another name for ductus deferns vas deferens
What passes through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity and posterior urinary bladder? spermatic cord
What does the seminal vesicles unite with to form the ejaculatory ducts? spermatic cord
What is secreted by the seminal vesicles? an alkaline fluid containing nutrients and prostaglandins
The ejaculatory ducts unite with? urethra within the prostate gland.
What is the combination of sperm and the secretions from the accessory gland? semen
What is a common tube to convey semen and urine? urethra
What does the urethra pass through? through the penis within the corpus spongiosum to externa urethral orifice
What does the corpus spongiosum plus two corpora cavernosa provide? vascular spaces that become engorged with blood during erection
What is the prepuce? loose fold of skin, forming cuff over glans penis
What are the paired organs suspended by spermatic cord within scrotum? testes
What are the subdivisions of testes? lobules
what are the long, tiny, coiled tubes that are the site of spermatogenesis? Seminiferous tubules
Another name for the interstitial cells Leydig cells
What are the endocrine cells between the seminiferous tubules that produce and secrete testosterone? interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
What is a network of channels from seminiferous tubules to efferent ductules? rete testis
What are several ducts from rete testis to epididymis? efferent ductules
What contains ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels? the spermatic cord
Where is the site of sperm maturation and storage? epidiymis
What is a muscular tube that transports and stores sperm? ductus deferens (vas deferens)
What is the name of the tube within prostate gland from ductus deferens to urethra? ejaculatory duct
What is another name for seminal vesicles? seminal glands?
What are paired glands that produce most of seminal fluid? seminal vesicles
What produces seminal fluid that helps to activate sperm? prostate gland
What is the gland in which its secretions neutralize ant residual acidic urine? bulbourethral glands
What is a protective covering of testes and epididymis? scrotum
What is the male copulatory organ? penis
What is a corpora cavernosa? paired erectile tusse cylinders; engorge with blood during an erection
What is a corpus spongiosum? single erectile tissue culiner; engorges with blood during an erection
What is a glans penis? expanded distal end of penis
What is another name for prepuce? forskin
What is a prepuce? a fold of skin around glans penis; removed if a surgical circumcision is performed
The organs of the FEMALE reproductive system are specialized to do what? produce and maintain the female sex cells, to transport these cells to site of fertilization, provide a favorable environment for developing offspring, move offspring to outside, and produce female sex hormones
What produces the egg cells and the female sex hormons ovaries
What are considered the accessory organs? the sets of internal and external genitalia
What is oogenesis? a process of meiosis in which follicle are in development to produce ova (eggs)
What secretes estrogen and progesterone, and later degenerates to form a corpus albicans? corpus luteum
Other names of the uterine tube in the female reproductive system? oviduct; fallopian tube
What are paired organs that produce ova and sex hormones? ovaries
What holds the reproductive organs in place? ligaments
What is the broad ligament? the largest ligament attaches to uterine tube, ovary, and uterus
What does the suspensory ligament of ovary due? holds superior end of ovary to pelvic wall
What attaches the ovary to the uterus? ovarian ligament
What is the round ligament of uterus? band within broad ligament from lateral uterus to CT of external genitalia
What are the uterine tubes (oviducts; fallopian tubes)? paired tubes; site of fertilization and early cleavage development
What are the slender extensions on end of the infundibulum? fimbriae
What houses embryonic and fetal development during pregnancy? uterus
What is the fundus of the uterus? wide superior curvature
What is the body of uterus? Large middle section
What is the cervix of uterus? inferior cylindrical end
What is the narrow passage within the cervix? cervical canal
What is the opening into the vagina within the cervix of the uterus? external OS
What is the endometrium of the uterine wall? inner mucosal layer iwth simple columnar epithelium and numerous tubular glands
What is the myometrium of the uterine wall? the thick middle layer of smooth muscle that contracts during childbirth
What is the perimetrium (serosa; serous coat) of the uterine wall? outer layer
What is the inferior recess of peritoneal cavity between rectum and uterus? rectouterine pouch
What is a tube that receives penis during sexual intercourse? vagina
What is considered the birth canal? vagina
The external genitalia is also called the vulva; pudendum
What is the rounded elevation with adipose tissue anterior to pubic symphysis? mons pubis
What is the folds of skin with hair that enclose and protect structures between them? labia majora
what is the lesser hair-free folds between labia majora? labia minora
What is the small projection at anterior end of vestibule? clitoris
What is formed during prenatal development? primordial follicles
What does a primary follicle contain? a primary oocyte that undergoes oogenesis
What the the primary follicle develop into? a secondary follicle and later on a mature tertiary follicle before ovulation of a secondary oocyte
After ovulation, where is the secondary oocyte conveyed? through the uterine tube by action of cilia and peristaltic waves
What are the 3 regions of uterus? fundus, body, cervix
What are the 3 layers of uterine wall? perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
Created by: elizabethcosio



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