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The Body as a Whole

MBC 100 The Language of Medicine, Ch. 2

TermDefinition
abdomen Space in the body below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gall bladder and intestines.
abdominal cavity Space in the body below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gall bladder and intestines.
adipose pertaining to fat.
anabolism Process of building up proteins in cells.
anterior front surface of the body.
cartilage flexible, connective tissue that is firmer than muscle, yet softer than bone.
catabolism cellular process of breaking down of a complex substance into simple compounds; energy is released to do the work of the cell. caudal
caudal pertaining to the lower portion of an organ or structure.
cell membrane thin and delicate structure surrounding a cell; allows materials to pass in and out.
cephalic pertaining to the head
cervical pertaining to the neck of the body or neck-like lower portion of the uterus.
chondroma benign tumor of cartilage.
chondrosarcoma Malignant, cancerous tumor of cartilage.
chromosome Threadlike structure within the nucleus of a cell; contains genetic material (DNA)
coccygeal Pertaining to the tailbone or coccyx.
coccyx Tailbone.
cranial cavity Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull.
craniotomy Incision of the skull.
cytoplasm All of the substance of a cell other than the nucleus.
deep Away from the surface of the body or an organ.
diaphragm Muscular wall separating the chest and abdomen.
disk(disc) Pad of cartilage between vertebrae.
distal Pertaining to the beginning of a structure.
dorsal Pertaining to the back, or posterior portion of the body.
endoplasmic reticulum Network of canals within the cytoplasm of the cell.
epigastric region Middle upper region above the stomach.
epinephrine Hormone secreted by the adrenal gland in response to stress and physical injury. Also called adrenaline.
epithelial cells Cells arranged in layers and covering or lining a surface of the body.
frontal plane Vertical plane passing through the body and dividing it into the front and back portions; coronal plane.
genes Segments of DNA that determine heredity.
histology Study of tissues.
hypochondriac region Right and left upper regions beneath the ribs.
hypogastric region Middle lower region of the abdomen.
iliac Pertaining to the ilium, which is the right or left upper most portion of the hip bone.
inferior Below another structure.
inguinal region Right and left lower regions near the groin.
intervertebral Pertaining to between the vertebrae (backbones).
intravenous Pertaining to within a vein.
karyotype Classification of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell determined by a photograph taken during cell division.
larynx The voice box.
lateral Pertaining to the side.
lumbar region Right and left middle regions near the waist.
lumbosacral Pertaining to the lumbar and sacral regions of the back.
medial Pertaining to the middle or midline of the body.
mediastinum Part of the thoracic (chest) cavity between the lungs.
metabolism Chemical processes that occur in cells; including catabolism and anabolism.
mitochondria Rod-like, thread-like, or granular structures in a cell; site of catabolism and release of energy.
nucleic Pertaining to the nucleus.
nucleus Central, controlling structure in cell; contains chromosomes with DNA (genetic material).
pelvic cavity Pertaining to the space surrounded by the bones of the hip region.
peritoneum Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen.
pharynx Throat
pituitary gland Endocrine gland at the base of the brain
pleura Double-folded membrane surrounding each lung.
pleural cavity Space between the pleura surrounding each lung.
posterior Pertaining to the back or dorsal side of the body or structure.
prone Lying on the belly (face down).
proximal Near the point of attachment or beginning of an organ.
sacral Pertaining to the sacrum.
sagittal plane Lengthwise vertical plane that divides the body int a right and left portion; lateral plane.
sarcoma Tumor (malignant) of fleshy tissue such as bone, muscle, fat, and cartilage.
spinal cavity Space within the spinal column (backbones) containing the spinal cord.
spinal column Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity.
spinal cord Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity.
superficial On the surface of the body.
superior Above another structure.
supine Lying on the back.
thoracic cavity Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus and other organs.
thoracotomy Incision of the chest.
thyroid gland Endocrine gland in the neck on either side of the trachea.
trachea Windpipe; tube leading from the larynx (voice box) to the bronchial tubes.
tracheal Pertaining to the trachea.
transverse plane Horizontal (cross-sectional) plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions.
umbilical region Central regions near the navel.
ureter One of two tubes carrying urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
urethra Tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the b ody.
uterus Muscular organ in a female that nourishes the developing embryo during pregnancy; womb.
ventral Pertaining to the front or anterior of the body.
vertebra Single backbone.
vertebrae Backbones.
vertebral Pertaining to backbones.
viscera Internal organs.
visceral Pertaining to internal organs.
Created by: Momster