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Digestive system


What are the main functions of the Digestive System? -Take in food -Break it down into nutrient molecules -Absorb molecules into the blood stream -Rid body of any indigestible remains
What are the six essential activities involved in the processing of food? 1.Ingestion 2.Propulsion 3.Mechanical Breakdown 4.Digestion 5.Absorption 6.Defecation
Define Ingestion Eating
Define Propulsion Movement of food through the alimentary canal, which includes: -Swallowing -Peristalsis: Major means of propulsion of food that involves alternating waves of contraction and relaxation
Define Mechanical Breakdown includes chewing, mixing food with saliva, churning food in stomach, and segmentation.
Define segmentation Local constriction of intestine that mixes food with digestive juices
Define Digestion series of catabolic steps that involves enzymes that break down complex food molecules into chemical building blocks
Define Absorption passage of digested fragments from lumen of GI tract into blood or lymph
Define Defecation elimination of indigestible substances via anus in form of feces
Define Peritoneum serous membranes of abdominal cavity that consists of: -Visceral Peritoneum -Parietal Peritoneum
Define Visceral Peritoneum membrane on external surface of most digestive organs
Define Parietal Peritoneum membrane that lines body wall
Define Peritoneal cavity Fluid-filled space between two peritoneums
What is the function of the Peritoneal Cavity? Fluid lubricates mobile organs
Define Mesentery double layer of peritoneum; layers are fused back to back
Where is mesentery located in the abdominal cavity? Extends from body wall to digestive organs
What are the functions of mesentery? -Provides routes for blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves -Holds organs in place and also stores fat
What are Intraperitoneal (peritoneal) organs? organs that are located within the peritoneum
What are Retroperitoneal organs? located outside, or posterior to, the peritoneum -Includes most of pancreas, duodenum, and parts of large intestine (also the kidneys)
Define Peritonitis Inflammation of peritoneum
What are some of the causes of peritonitis? Can be caused by piercing abdominal wound, perforating ulcer, or ruptured appendix
What helps localize the infection in a patient with peritonitis? Peritoneal coverings stick together, which helps localize infection
When does peritonitis become lethal and dangerous? When is becomes widespread
What is the treatment of peritonitis? debris removal and megadoses of antibiotics
All digestive organs have the same four layers or tunics. What are the layers? 1.Mucosa 2.Submucosa 3.Muscularis externa 4.Serosa
What is the Splanchnic circulation ? Arteries that branch off aorta to serve digestive organs: -Hepatic, splenic, and left gastric arteries -Inferior and superior mesenteric arteries
What are the functions of the hepatic portal circulation? -Drains nutrient-rich blood from digestive organs -Delivers blood to liver for processing
What is the enteric nervous system? The GI tracts own nervous system. -Also called the gut brain -Contains more neurons than spinal cord
What is the gut brain made of? Enteric neurons that communicate extensively with each other -Major nerve supply to GI tract wall that controls motility
Enteric neurons make up bulk of two main interconnecting intrinsic nerve plexuses: Submucosal nerve plexus Myenteric nerve plexus
What is the function of the submucosal nerve plexus? Regulates glands and smooth muscle in mucosa
Created by: Jofro98