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Anatomy

Anatomy exam II GI

QuestionAnswer
The gastroespohageal or cadiac sphincter function is to _____ prevent reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus
The gastoesophageal sphincter's circular muscle fibers are under _____ and ____ control hormonal and vagal
______ form a submucosal venous plexus at the distal end of the esophagus esophageal veins
Esophageal veins drain into tributaries of the ____ system and of the portal vein azygos
If the ______ is ruptured, could result in massive bleeding and vomitting of blood (hematemesis) esophageal varices
With _____, the esophageal lining epithelium is replaced by tissue similar to that found in the stomach. This process is called ____ Barrett's esophagus; intestinal metaplasia
The ability of the esophagus to propel food from the mouth to the stomach is lost and the valve mechanism (sphincter) at the lower end of the esophagus fails to relax to allow the food into the stomach. This is called ____ achalasia
In most cases, achalasia is found mostly in people ages ____ to ____ 20-40
Patients with achalasia complain of _____, which becomes worse during emotional stress or rapid eating dysphagia
People with achalasia can develop _____, dilatation of esophagus beginning at upper 1/3, eventually involving entire length megaesophagus
What are the 4 parts of the stomach? 1. cardia 2. fundus (at cardiac notch) 3. body 4. pyloic part
What are the 2 curves of the stomach? greater and lesser curvature
What 3 ligaments are in the greater omentum? 1. gastrocolic 2. gastrospenic 3. gastrophrenic
What 2 ligaments are in the lesser omentum? 1. hepatogastric 2. hepatoduodenal
The _____ ligament supports the duodenum but not the stomach hepatoduodenal
What are the 5 internal features of the stomach? 1. cardiac orfice 2. rugae 3. gastric muscosa 4. gastric canal 5. pyloric orfice
What is the rugae? gastric folds/ridges
______ lead to gastric glands in the lamina propria gastric pits
What are the 3 muscular layers of the stomach? 1. outer longitudinal 2. middle circular 3. inner oblique
The middle circular muscle of the stomach, in the plyoris it is normally thickened to form the ______ pyloric sphincter
_____ is a marked thickening of the pyloric sphincter, severe narrowing of the pyloric canal, and obstruction to passage of food pyloric stenosis
With pyloric stenosis, the stomach is marked disteneded, and infant has _____ projectile vomiting
Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is more commonly found in ___ then ___ females then men
The pancreas, L kidney, spleen, diaphragm, L suprarenal gland, transverse mesocolon and the omental bursa make up the ____ stomach bed
____ weakens the protective mucous coating of the stomach and duodenum, which allows acid to get through to the mucosa. Both the acid and the bacteria irritate the mucosa causing an ____ H. pylori; ulcer
H. pylori is able to survive in ____ because it secretes enzymes that neutralize the acid. Its spiral shape helps it burrow through the mucosa stomach acid
____ can range in size from multiple erosions that may heal in acute stages or enlarge into single chronic ____ gastric ulcer; ulcers
Gastric ulcers are more common in the body near the ____ towards the lesser curvature pyloric part
_____ is the posterior perforation of an ulcer in the body of the stomach can secondarily in inlve the structures of the stomach bed especially the ____ perforated gastric ulcer; pancreas
_____ is a posterior perforation of an ulcer in the body of the stomach can also involve the ____ resulting in massive intra-abdominal bleeding perforated gastric ulcer; splenic artery
The duodenum contains how many parts? 4
The 1st part of the duodenum contains ___, ____ and ____ liver; gallbladder and gastroduodenal artery
______ most commonly affects proximal half of first part of the duodenum (duodenal cap or ampulla) duodenal ulcer
A duodenum ulcer can perforate posteriorly and erode into the ____ resulting in hemorrhage gastroduodenal artery
Anterior perforation of the duodenal ulcer can result in ____ peritonitis
The 2nd part of the duodenum contains ____, ____ and ____ transerve colon, common bile duct and major parcreatic duct
The 3rd part of the duodenum contains the ___ and ___ superior mesenteric artery and vein
The 4th part of the duodenum joins the jejunum; attachemnt of ____ at junction with jejunum ligament of Treitz
_____ is also known as the suspensory muscle of the duodenum ligament of Treitz
The ligament of Treitz fibromuscular band connects ____ to the right crus of the diaphragm duodenojejunal flexure
The ligament of Treitz is belived to stabilize the duodenal flexure and regulate ____ passage of food
The ____ contains opening of hepatopancreatic ampulla major duodenal papilla
The major duodenal papilla demacates junciton of embryonic _____ and ____ foregut and midgut
How long is the jejunum? 8ft
How long is the ilium? 12ft
The jejunum contains ____ (4) larger plicae circulares, "windows", fewer arterieal arcades and vasa rectae
The ilium contains ____ (2) Meckel's diverticulum and Peyer's patches
During a barium swallow test, the Upper GI series show the normal ____ of jejunum due to the presence of large and numerous plicae circulares and villi in the walls of the jejunum in contrast to the smooth surface of the distal ileum “feathery’ appearance
_____ are remnants of vitelline duct, the proximal part of the yolk stalk which normally regresses between the fifth and eight week of life Meckel's diverticulum
Meckel's diverticulum is present in _____ of infants ~2-3%
Meckel's diverticulum appears ____ proximal to ileocecal junction ~2-3ft
What are the 2 clinical manifestations of Meckel's diverticulum? interinal obstruction or GI bleed
With Meckel's diverticulum, the mucosal lining is similar to that of the ileum, but may contain islands of 2 types of tissues: ____ and ____ gastric and pancreatic muscosa
Meckel's diverticulum manifestations: intestinal obstruction or GI bleeding; could also mimic ____ presenting as periumbilical pain which localizes to ____ quadrant appendicitis; right lower
Ulcerations, inflammation, torsion ± strangulation, intussusception (“telescoping”) and herniation are complications with ____ Meckel's diverticulum
Regional enteritis is also named ____ Crohn's disease
______ is chronic inflammation often affecting terminal ileum but can also involve the colon regional enteritis
The longitudinal bands of the large intenstine are ____ taeniae coli
The sacculations due to shorter teniae as compared with length of the colon are called ____ haustra coli
What are the fat tags of the large intestine? omental appendages
The ____ are the 3 longitudinal bands represent the outer longitudinal muscle layer of the large intestines taeniae coli
What are the 8 parts of the large intestine? 1. cecum 2. vermiform appendix 3. ascending colon 4. transverse colon 5. descending colon 6. sigmoid colon 7. rectum 8 anal canal
The vermiform appendix contains no ____. Located retrocecal ____% and pelvic ____% tenis coli; 64% and 32%
_____ marks the point of tenderness in acute appendicitis; marks the base of the appendix McBurney's point
_____ is the where the opening of v. appendix into the cecum is blocked by build-up of thick mucus, hardened stool (fecalith) or enlarged lymphoid tissues appendicitis
What are 3 symptoms of early appendicitis? anorexia, nasuea and vomitting
_____ is pain on passive extension of the right thigh. Patient lies on left side. Examiner extends patient's right thigh while applying counter resistance to the right hip psoas sign
_____ is pain on passive internal rotation of the flexed thigh. Examiner moves lower leg laterally while applying resistance to the lateral side of the knee resulting in internal rotation of the femur obturator sign
____ are outpouchings (sacs) of intestinal wall in the colon diverticulosis
What is Hirschsprung’s disease aslo named as? congenital megacolon
_____ presents as abdominal enlargement and constipation in neonate; unable to pass meconium at birth Hirschsprung's disease
For Hirschsprung's disease, a portion of colon is dilated (megacolon) due to absence of ____ in the intestinal wall distal to the dilated segment autonomic ganglia (parasympathetic)
Created by: luckynikki