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Immunology Midterm

Innate Immunity Non-specific, always present, no memory, includes: skin, mucus membranes, cilia, peristalsis, normal flora, humoral factors
Adaptive Immunity Specific, has memory, reacts quickly once triggered, includes: B cells, T cells, Plasma cells
Cytokines Produced by Helper T cells, regulates immune responses
Interleukins Produced by Helper T cells
Apoptosis normal cell death
Spleen Removes old cells
Memory ability to respond quickly to antigens that previously triggered its activation
IgM found in primary response, is a pentamer
IgM best agglutinator (10 binding sites)
IgA is a dimer
Antibody Produced by plasma cells, proteins made in response to an antigen
Histamine Released by mast cells, makes local blood vessels more permeable
Phagocytosis cells ingesting objects (bacteria, viruses, apoptosis cells), Neutrophils perform
Haptens small compounds able to combine with immune system elements but cant stimulate a response unless linked to larger carrier, poison ivy
Epitope restricted portion of molecule involved in actual binding
Heavy chain determines antibody class
Monocytes differentiates into a macrophage
Dendritic cell most efficient antigen presenting cell
Eosinophil cell associated with allergies and parasitic infections
Natural killer cells virus infected cells
CRP tests for inflammation
Tolerance failure to respond to antigen, immature B cells that express self-reacting BCR bind self antigens
T dependent antigens requires presence of helper T cells to stimulate B cell antibody production
Primary immune response first contact with antigen, B and T cells respond, slow antibody peak, longer to reach immunity, antibodies decline rapidly
Secondary immune response second and subsequent exposure to antigen, memory cell responds, antibodies peak quickly, quicker immunity and antibody levels stay/decline slower
B cells CD19
T helper cells CD4
MHC class I found on nucleated cells
MHC class II interact with helper T cells
Naive cell cell that hasn't been exposed to an antigen
Cyclosporine affects T cell function to prevent antigen production/activation after organ transplant
Somatic mutation results in cancer
Somatic recombination process where segments of DNA are rearranged to form variable region genes of BCR and T cell receptors that interact with antigens
T cytotoxic cells cells that kill infected cells
Complement elemination of microorganisms. C3a, C4a, C5a are anaphylatoxins
Alternative pathway activation when C3b is deposited on the target cell surface
MAC (membrane attack complex) made of C5b, C6, C7, C8, C9
Scintillation gamma rays
Nephelometry scatter of light
Flow cytometry for counting cells
Chemiluminescence light from a chemical reaction
Spectrophotometer absorbance/transmission of light
AH50 measures overall activity of alternative pathway
HANE decreased level of C1 inhibitor
Substrate substance acted upon by enzyme
Glutaraldehyde reagent used to bind fluorochromes and enzymes to antigens or antibodies
Zone of equivalence area of precipitin curve where all molecules and antibody molecules interact to form a lattice
Antibody Titer detects presence and amount of antibodies present in blood
Syphilis testing FTA-ABS, flocculation, cardiolipin antibody, RPR, TPHA/hemaggultination
Primary stage Chancre
Secondary stage Rash
Tertiary stage decades later, neurological
Agglutination and precipitation soluble/particulate; colloidal particles/gold
Electrophoresis takes place at room temp, antibodies located in gamma band, cellulose acetate doesnt impede protein movement, buffer pH >8
Immunofixation antigens separated by electrophoresis, antibodies layered over & diffuse into the gel, immunodiffusion
Immunodiffusion antibodies diffuse & combine with the antigen, resulting in precipitation
Gonorrhoeae gram neg diplococci
Chlamydia elemtary body, reticulate body
Cold agglutinins mycoplasma pneumonia, must be kept warm
Borrelia burgdorferi bull's eye rash, lyme disease
Weil-Felix agglutination test Rocky mountain spotted fever (RMSF)
Hepatitis testing capsid
Importance of clades in Hep C responds to different treatment
Rubeola Measles, photophobia, subacute sclerosing, panencephalitis
Mumps Amylase
Chicken pox virus can lead to shingles in elderly
HIV CD4 cells, gp120, viral load tests
Reye's syndrome aspirin
HTLV retrovirus, adult T cell leukemia, transmitted through sexual contact, blood/blood, IV drug use, breast milk
Germ tube test Candida, positive: tube extending from spore
Cryptococcus neoformans india ink
Acanthamoeba contact lens wearers
Thyroid testing increased TSH=increased T3 and T4, decreased TSH=decreased T3 and T4, bulging eyes
Graves disease hyperthyroidism
Cancer testing CEA/colon cancer, CA125/ovarian
Pernicious anemia intrinsic factor, schilling test
Philadelphia chromosome 9 and 22
Bence jones proteins multiple myeloma
Created by: Ramin11
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