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Chapter 11 Terms

The Later Middle Ages

Black Death Outbreak of plague(mostly bubonic) in the mid 14th century that killed 20 to 50% to European population; caused social, political, economic and cultural revolution and upheaval
Giovanni Boccaccio 1313-1375, Italian writer and poet, best know work "Decameron", wrote of reaction to the plague
Flagellants popular movement in 1348, men and women who migrated and flogged themselves to win God's forgiveness
Pogroms Organized massacres of Jews, the worst were carried out in Germany; started a history of deep rooted Anti-Semitism
"Ars Moriendi" Book from 1415, 'The Art of Dying', offer advice on how to die well or have a good death
Jacquerie 1358 French peasant revolt in Northern France, this failed and peasants massacred
English Peasants' Revolt Took place in 1381 as an immediate result of taxes, poll tax was eliminated and most pardoned
Hundred Years' War War that broke out between England and France because Edward III had a claim to the French Throne; England lost in the end
Henry V of England King that renewed Hundred Years' War and made himself heir to the French throne via Treaty of Troyes(1420)
Battle of Agincourt Battle in 1415 (Hundred Years') where the French lost 6,000 men and the English only lost 300; staggering French defeat
Dauphin Heir(oldest son of the king) to the French throne
Joan of Arc Young woman from Doremy that received visions from God that led her to bring a French victory to the Hundred Years'
House of Lords Body of English Parliament made up of aristocrats/ high clergy men
House of Commons Body of English Parliament made up of those considered 'less than the lords'
Estates-General French Parliament made up of the clergy, nobility, and the Third Estate(everyone other than the other two)
Gabelle Hundred Years' War French tax on salt, put in place by Phillip VI
Taille Hundred Years' War French tax on the hearth, put in place by Phillip VI
Holy Roman Empire Empire that's core was the lands of Germany, made up of several independent states, began to fall apart in the High Middle Ages
Golden Bull(1356) Document issues by Emperor Charles IV stating four princes and three lords elected the Holy Roman Emperor
City-States a city and its surrounding territory that forms an independent state
Condottieri leaders of bands of mercenaries in Renaissance Italy who sold their services to the highest bidder
Unam Sanctam (1302) Document issued by Pope Boniface VIII; strongest statement ever made by a pope on the supremacy of spiritual authority
Avignon Papacy Residency of the popes in Avignon for 72 years (1305-1377), starting with Clement V, successor of Boniface VIII
Great Schism Crisis in the late medieval church when there were first two then three popes, ended by Council of Constance(1414-1418)
Conciliarism A 14th-15th century European movement that held that final spiritual authority resided with general church council, result of the Great Schism
Vernacular Language Everyday language of a region vs. the language used for official documents
Council of Pisa (1409) Group of cardinals that elected Alexander V to try and end the Great Schism
Dante Alighieri Florentine writer of "The Divine Comedy", once a politician but exiled in 1302
Petrarch Florentine poet, wrote sonnets, the father of Renaissance humanism
Geoffrey Chaucer English writer, author of "Canterbury Tales", critic of late medieval church corruption
Giotto Italian painter who used a new kind of realism that inspired a new generation of artists
Created by: Alex_Hayes