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In embryology, normal folding of the cardiac tube as shown is termed: D looping
A column of tissue splitting the stream of blood flowing from atria to ventricle is termed the; Endocardial cushion
A patient with "Normal Situs" will have abdominal contents with ____ sided stomach bubble and ____ hepatic shadow. Left, Right
After the newborn takes its first breath, right sided pressure drop. This pressure drop causes a closure of Ostium secundum
The normal fetal circulation, what percentage of the cardiac output goes through the lungs? 10%-12%
The normal fetal shunt between the AO and PA is termed___ and shunts blood in a _____ direction PDA, R - L
What fetal shunt carries the most oxygen rich blood? Ductus venosus
In prenatal life the fetal lung alveoli are? Collapsed
When the umbilicus is clamped? AO pressure ___ and PA pressure ____. Increases, Decreases
Between 24th and 28th day of gestation the truncus arterio must divide and spiral. If this fails, what Congenital defect develops? Transposition of the great vessels
Subvalvular Obstruction; also termed HOCM or IHSS
What blood lipoproteins is the major carrier of cholesterol? Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)
To reduce risk of heart attack - Serum cholesterol should be kept below ____. 200mg/dl
The worst dietary factors, that increase serum cholesterol and its lipoprotein fraction are increased____. Calories, Saturated fats, and Cholesterol
What blood lipoprotein is believed to have a PROTECTIVE effect against atherosclerotic heart disease? High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
The actual amount of O2 carried in the blood (VOL%) is defined as? Oxygen Content
What would shift the oxyhemoglobin curve to the right and facilitate O2 unloading in the tissue? Acidosis
The normal adult male Hemoglobin measurement? Hgb = 15gm/dl
A patient with a hemoglobin of 22 gm, is suffering from? Polycythemia (High Hct)
Most of the oxygen carried in the blood is in the? Hemoglobin as O2 Saturation
Blood PO2 levels actually measure the oxygen that is? Dissolved in the plasma
What element in the hemoglobin molecule combines chemically with Oxygen? Iron (Fe)
The percent of RBS's by volume in whole blood is known as? Hematocrit
Normal adult male Hematocrit is? 45%-52%
Arterial blood O2 Saturation SaO2
Arterial blood O2 Content CaO2
Partial pressure of arterial O2 PaO2
O2 consumption rate VO2
Inspired O2% FIO2
Gas exchange across the alveolar capillary membrane is accomplished by what mechanism? Diffusion
The primary drive to breathing comes from the patient's CO2 levels
If red blood cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, they will? Crenate
What is the shape of a normal red blood cell? Biconcave disc
The chief receptor responsible for platelet aggregation is? GP IIb IIIa
The protein threads that form the basis of a clot are? Fibrin
What blood cells initiate clotting? Platelets
What two proteins combine to form a blood clot? Thrombin, Fibrinogen
List the Clotting cascade in order Prothrombin->Thrombin-> Fibrinogen -> Fibrin Clot
Which process of hemostasis acts first to temporarily patch the inner walls of injured and/or bleeding vessels? Platelet aggregation
Which factor speeds and enhances blood clotting? Slow blood flow
The expected blood volume of an average 70 Kg adult is? 5.6 Liters (8% of an adult body is Blood)
Blood "Type A" contains what factor on RBC membranes? Antigen A
"Type A" blood plasma contains only ____ iso-agglutinin antibodies? Antibody B
Which type of "ABO plasma antibodies" (agglutinins) would a person with "Type O" blood have? A and B agglutinins
What blood type is the universal donor? Type O
The Rh blood factor is a/an? Antigen found on some blood cells
The main organ responsible for regulating acid base and electrolyte balance in the body is? the Kidney
Oxygen chemically combined with hemoglobin for transport is termed? Oxy-hemoglobin
Normal CO2 and O2 arterial blood gas tensions are? PCO2 = 40 / PO2 = 80
Bicarbonate functions as a base by? Removing free H+ ions from a solution
Volatile acids are those that? Give off gaseous products
Respiratory failure allows which of the following acids to accumulate in the blood? Carbonic Acid
Kidneys affect arterial blood by controlling the? HCO3 & O2 Sat
One by products of ANAEROBIC metabolism is? Lactic Acid
How do elevated blood PCO2 and low pH levels effect oxygenation? Increase oxygenation of tissues
Which acid base imbalance should be treated by increasing the patients respiratory rate and/or depth? Respiratory Acidosis
Normal blood Potassium electrolyte levels are? 3-5 mEq/L
Phagocytosis means? Cell eating
What are the functions of Leukocytes? Antibody production , Phagocytosis
What is a Leukocyte? White Blood Cell (WBC)
The main function of the blood is? Transportaion
Where are Erythrocytes produced? Bone marrow
Each red blood cell lives approximately? 120 days (4 months)
In a child, what percent of the body weight is composed of the blood volume? 7%
Plasma contains what percent of water? 92%
The average adult alveolar capillary surface area in the lungs is? 50-70 M2
Normal WBC count? 5,000 - 9,000 /mm3
Insulin secretion causes a? Decrease in blood Glucose
Diabetic coma results from an excess accumulation in the blood of? Ketones from rapid fat breakdown, causing acidosis
Blood component neither seen nor measured in a hematocrit is? Thrombocytes
Red Blood Cells Erythrocytes
White Blood Cells Leucocytes
Platelets Throbocytes
Blood exam that estimates the percentage of each type of white cell? Differential blood count
Edema - Abnormal accumulation of Fluid
Water diffuses across a membrane due to area of higher concentration is? Osmosis
Important electrolyte serum level to monitor and watch when taking diuretic pills is? Potassium.
A patient with CHF tends to retain excessive amounts of? Sodium
Is sodium one cause for edema? True
In the lateral chest X-ray, which structure is most posterior? Coronary sinus
Occlusion of the mid RCA would cause infraction of the LV? Inferior Wall (diaphragmatic surface)
What occlusion would result in RV Myocardial Infraction Acute Marginal Occulusion
What small coronary artery frequently originates from a separate ostia within the right sinus of Valsalva? Conus artery
Normally the second branch off the RCA (after the Conus Branch) is? SA node
What area of the brain regulates peripheral vascular resistance? Nucleus tractus Solitarus in the medulla
The sympathetic Nervous system originates from the___, and the parasympathetic (Vagal) originates from___. T1-T12, 10th cranial
Vascular smooth muscle: Alpha 1
Heart muscle and AV node: Beta 1
Lung bronchioles: Beta 2
Lung broncho-dilation: Beta - 2 adrenergic
Cardiac stimulation: Beta - 1 adrenergic
Vasoconstriction: Alpha adrenergic
Cardiac depression: Cholinergic
Atropine: Vagal Blocker
Propranolol (Inderol): Beta Blocker
Norepinphrine: Sympathomimetic
Acetylcholine: Cholinergic
Which regulatory system plays the predominant role in the regulation of cutaneous flow? Sympathetic Nervous
Stimulation of sympathetic nerves liberates____ as an end site chemical mediator. Norepinephrine
Alterations in heart rate evoked by changes in blood pressure are dependent upon the baroreceptors located in the? Aortic arch and Carotid sinuses
The main parasympathetic nerve that innervates the heart is the? Vagus
The naturally occurring neurotransmitter at the parasympathetic nerve junction is? Acetylcholine
List two common causes of vasovagal reaction; Pain, Patient Anxiety
What is the primary effect of vagal nerve stimulation on the heart? Decreased automaticity
Increased vagal tone causes? -Inotropism, -Chronotropism
Atropine: Parasympathetic Blocker (anti-cholinergic)
Standard dosage for Atropine given IV? 0.5-1.0 mg every 3-5 mins & MAX of 2-3 mg
Stretch receptors in the Aortic arch are termed? Baro-receptors
Baro-receptors are most sensitive to? Blood pressure
With increased blood pressure sensed by the Baro-receptors, will cause? Decrease in heart rate
Acidemia and Hypoxemia cause? Vasodilation of systemic circ / Vasoconstriction of Pulmonary System
Where the most Vascular Resistance developes? Arterioles
Where the Blood Flow through vessels is the SLOWEST? Capilaries
What vessels have the Greatest cross sectional area? Capilaries
What has the LARGEST mean blood pressure (gradient) occur? Arterioles
In the supine individual, the lowest mean vascular blood pressure will be found in the? Superior Vena Cava
The aortic dicrotic notch marks the beginning of ventricular? LV diastole
Closure of the semilunar heart valves is associated with a hemodynamic? Dicrotic notch
Kidney function test: BUN (Blood urea Nitrogen)
Artery punctured for AO-gram: CFA ( Common Femoral Artery)
Feeding tube to stomach: NG (Nasogastric)
Artery supplying femur: PFA (Profunda Femoral Artery)
Computerized digital X-ray imaging: DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography)
Thrombosis of leg veins: DVT (Deep Vein Thrombosis)
Contrast injected IV: IVP (Intravenous Pyelogram)
Artery to front of foot: DP (Dorsalis Pedis)
Artery of the intestine: SMA (Superior Mesenteric artery)
Radio-isotope scan of lung: V/Q (Ventilation/Perfusion)
Vascular angioplasty: PTA (Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty)
Abdominal film showing urinary system: KUB (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder)
Kidneys: Renal
Lungs: Bronchial
Intestines: Mesenteric
Liver: Portal/Hepatic
Diaphragm: Phrenic
Brain: Carotid
Legs: Iliac
Arms: Subclavian
Created by: IdAhOmEyEr