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Unit 2:Revolutionary

8th Grade American Revolution

Parliament England's chief lawmaking body; was the colonists' model for representative government.
French and Indian War The war between 1754-1763 over control of the northern and eastern parts of North America
George Washington 21 year old major who was sent by the British to tell the French to leave the Ohio River Valley
Proclamation of 1763 This forbid colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
George III King of England during the American Revolution
Patrick Henry Man who said "as for me, give me liberty or give me death."
Boycott A refusal to buy something
Samuel Adams Leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty
Crispus Attucks First African American killed in America's fight for independence
John Adams Defended the British soldiers who killed the 5 citizens during the Boston Massacre
Boston Tea Party Event in which citizens of Boston dressed as Mohawk Indians and dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor
Quartering Act Required colonists to house British soldiers and provide them with supplies
Stamp Act Required a legal documents to carry an official stamp showing that a tax had been paid.
Writs of Assistance Search warrants to enter homes or businesses
Committees of Correspondence groups that exchanged letters on colonial affairs
Ally a country that aids another country
Mercenary a soldier fighting for another country
Bayonet a knife attached to a gun
Privateer a ship permitted to attach enemy ships
Rendezvous a meeting
Desert to leave military duty without planning to return
Republicanism the idea that the people should rule
Strategy an overall plan of action
Guerrilla a fighter who uses hit-and-run attacks
Declaratory Act Asserted Britain's power over her colonies
Townshend Acts Taxed tea, lead, paper, and glass
Navigation Acts Law to control colonial trade
Boston Massare Deaths that occurred in a riot
Sugar Act Tax enacted in 1764 to help pay colonial defense
Intolerable Acts Actions taken by Parliament because of the Boston Tea Party
First Continental Congress 12 colonies met in Philadelphia; sent a respectful message to King George urging him to consider the colonists' grievances (complaints)
Tariff A tax used to regulate trade
Abigail Adams Wife of John Adams; a patriot; she wanted the Declaration of Independence to address women's rights
Mercy Otis Warren A partiot; she wrote plays that were critical of the British government's actions against the colonists
James Armistead A slave who enlisted as a patriot spy; he could get into British camps and hear important war secrets; Marquis de Lafayette helped him gain his freedom
Wentworth Cheswell Grandson to 1st African American land owner; he worked for freedom and justice for all American citizens; fought in the Battle of Saratoga
Hay Salomon Convinced many Hessians to desert the British military; he used his own money to finance the Patriot cause for independence
John Paul Jones One of the most successful American captains; Famous victory came against a British warship; "I have not yet begun to fight"
Civil Disobedience Refusal to obey laws in an effort to induce change in governmental policy or legislation; usually through nonviolent means
2nd Continental Congress Chose Washington to lead the Continental Army; Sent Olive Branch Petition (another try for peace); selected a committee to write the Declaration of Independence
Bernardo de Galvez From Spain; governor of Louisiana; he sided with the Americans; he gave weapons, gunpowder, clothing, and other supplies to the colonial army
1776 America declared independence from Britain
Saratoga American Revolution; the 1st time that it looked like the Americans could win
Lexington/Concord First battle of the American Revolution; the "Shot Heard Round the World"
Declaration of Independence Listed the reasons that the U.S. was officially overthrowing the British rule
Thomas Jefferson Wrote the Declaration of Independence; Anti-Federalist
Thomas Paine Wrote Common Sense (people should rule themselves, not ruled by a King)
Benjamin Franklin Inventor; discoverer of electricity, negotiated peace treaty with France
Yorktown Last battle of the American Revolution
Treaty of Paris 1783 Treaty that ended the American Revolution
Inalienable Rights (Unalienable Rights) Rights that all people are born with: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
Lord Cornwalis Commander of the British forces; surrendered at Yorktown
Marquis de Lafayette Frenchman who aided troops at Valley Forge by supplying clothing
Valley Forge Washington's starving, poorly equipped troops trained here during freezing winter
Taxation without Representation Slogan of colonial grievance due to paying $$$$ without consent
Militia Troops of voluntary citizen-soldiers; minutemen
Patriots Colonists wanting to fight for independence from Britain
Loyalist Colonists wanting to remain loyal to Britain
Continental Army Organized by the 2nd Continental Congress to fight against the British
Molly Pitcher Nickname given to Mary Ludwig Hayes McCauley when she carried water to soldiers after her husband was kill in battle
Hessians We are German mercenaries (professional soldiers) hired by the British. 900 of us were captured by Washington at Trenton
Francis Maron I was an American patriot known as the "Swamp Fox" because of my guerrilla attacks on the British in South Carolina
Ethan Allen I led a group of men from Vermont on an expedition to steal cannons from Fort Ticonderoga
George Rogers Clark I led Virginia frontiersmen against the British in the Ohio River Valley. We captured forts at Kaskasia Cahokia, and Vincennes
Frederick von Steuben I was a German army officer who trained Washington's troops at Valley Forge. I taught them how to march and use their bayonets
John Burgoyne I am a British general who led a march on Albany. I was slowed by dragging my baggage carts through the woods. I finally surrendered my army at Saratoga
Petition A request to change something
Grievance Grudge or circumstance regarded as just cause for complaint often in retaliation
Repeal To officially cancel
Posterity Decedents of future generation
Revolution Overturning of a government by the people being governed
Siege The surrounding or blockading of a city, town or fortress by an army attempting to capture it.
Redcoats British soldiers who fought against the colonist; so called because of the color of their bright red uniform
Blockade A closing off of an are to keep people or supplies from going in or out
Deborah Sampson She disguised herself as a man using the name Robert Shurtleff and joined the Patriot forces
Martha Washington She stayed with her husband during the hard winter at Valley Forge. Eventually she became the country's First Lady.
John Hancock The statesman who was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence
Paul Revere Warned the colonists that the British were attacking
Concord The location where colonial militias in Massachusetts stored their weapons
Battle of Lexington At the start of what battle were the minutemen told, "DOn't fire unless fired upon. But if they mean to have war, let it begin here!"
Olive Branch Petition Last effort to restore peaceful relationships between the King and the colonists.
The fort that Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen captured giving the colonists a large supply of weapons and cannon to use in the Revolution Fort Ticonderoga
Yorktown Wat colonia city did the minutemen surround and hold under siege
Bunker Hill The battle near Boston proved that the Continental army could "hold its own" against the British army.
Henry Knox This patriot moved the cannon from Fort Ticonderoga 300 miles through the wilderness to the siege of Boston
General Howe The British general who was driven out of Boston in March of 1776
General Horatio Gates Retired British soldier who served as a American General in the American Revolution; his victory at the Battle of Saratoga turned the tide in the war
Battle of Trenton On the night of December 25th, Washington and his army crossed the Delaware River and surprised the Hessians.
Battle of Bunker Hill First MAJOR battle of the American Revolution. Proved that Americans could fight bravely and that the British would not be easily defeated.
Minutemen Got their name because they were ready to fight at a minute's notice
Comte de Rochabeau French commander who aided in the victory of Yorktown
The Great Awakening Sermons about spiritual equality of all people led some colonists to began demanding more political equality
The Enlightenment Believed there should be a social contract between government and citizens
John Locke An Enlightenment thinker who thought that people had natural rights such as equality and liberty.
Johnathan Edwards Important leader of the Great Awakening; his dramatic sermons told sinners to seek forgiveness for their sins or face punishment in Hell forever.
Olive Branch Petition Assured King George III that the colonists wanted peace; asked King to protect the colonist's rights; and to repeal Intolerable Acts and end taxation without representation
Prohibitory Act In response to Olive Branch Petition; King ordered all rebels arrested for treason and hung; hired 10,000 Prussian mercenaries to help suppress the rebellion