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MOT - 133

Integumentary (Skin) System Review

Name the two major layers of the skin. Epidermis and Dermis
State the two primary functions of the skin. Keep out pathogens and chemicals
List accessory structures within the skin. Hair, nail follicles, sensory receptors and glands
State the location of the stratum corneum. In the outer most layer of skin.
Describe the functions of stratum corneum. Water proofs skin and barrier to pathogens and chemicals.
State the location of the stratum germinativum. Epidermis layer
Describe the functions of the stratum germinativum. Produces new cells by mitosis, produces antimicrobial defensins, cholesterol is changed top vit D when exposed to UV rays.
What are keratinocytes? stratified, squamous, epithelial cells that comprise skin and mucosa, including oral, esophageal, corneal, conjunctival, and genital epithelia. Keratinocytes provide a barrier between the host and the environment.
Describe the function of keratin. Water proof the body
Describe the function of merkel cells. They are receptors for the sense of touch.
State the location of merkel cells. They are in the stratus germintivum.
Describe the functions of Langerhan’s cells. From red bone marrow they phagocytize foreign material and send to lymphocytes for destruction.
Describe function of melanocytes. Lower epidermis, produces protein Melanin.
Describe the function of melanin. Absorbs ultraviolet light; gives color to the skin, hair, iris, and choroid layer of teh eye.
Name the tissues that make up the subcutaneous tissue. Areolar connective tissue and adipose tissue.
Describe the functions of Areolar connective tissue contained in the subcutaneous tissue. Contains fluid and WBCs that destroy pathogens that get through breaks in the skin.
List the parts of hair follicles. follicle, root, shaft, matrix, capillary, venule and fat cells
Describe function of hair. Keeps head warm/cool. Keep dust out of eyes & nose.
List the parts of nail follicles. root, bed, cuticle and lunula
Describe function of nails. Scratching, finger end protector, pickup small objects.
State the location of sebaceous glands. Superficial fascia connects adipose and derma to muscles.
Describe the functions of sebaceous glands. Produces sebum, prevents skin drying, inhibits bacteria growth.
Describe the functions of the secretions of sebaceous glands. Produces sebum, prevents skin drying, inhibits bacteria growth.
Describe the function of ceruminous glands. to produce cerumen.
State the location of ceruminous glands. In the dermis layer of ear canals.
Describe functions of the secretions of ceruminous glands. Keeps the outer surface of the eardrum pliable and prevents drying.
State the location of eccrine sweat glands. Sweat glands in axillae (underarm) and genital area.
State the location of apocrine sweat glands. Found all over the body/palms, forehead/upper lip/soles of feet.
Describe the functions of sweat glands. Maintain body temperature.
Differentiate between constriction and dilatation of blood vessels. Constriction closes and narrows - dilatation stretches and expands.
Describe how arterioles in the dermis respond to heat. Dilate-vasodilation.
Describe how arterioles in dermis respond to cold. Constrict-vasoconstriction.
Describe how arterioles in dermis respond to stress. Vasoconstrict ‘flight or fight.
Identify the vitamin created when the skin is exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Vitamin D. Also known as the sunshine vitamin.
Describe the location of the papillary layer. Stratum germinativum.
Describe the function of the papillary layer. supply nourishment (blood supply) to stratum germinativum & dermis
Name the cutaneous senses . Senses of the skin; the receptors found mainly in the dermis.
List the type of sensation felt from free nerve endings. Pain, heat and cold.
Type of sensations felt from encapsulated nerve endings. Touch and pressure.
Identify the location of mitosis in the skin. Stratum germinativum
Identify the location of mitosis in the nails . In the nail root.
Identify the location of mitosis in the hair root. In the matrix.
Identify the subcutaneous muscles that cause goose bumps. Pilomoter muscle
Identify the different methods of medication administration via the integumentary system. Trans dermal patches, creams.
Describe the meaning of the letters in the A of malignant melanoma. ASYMMETRY - LACK OF EQUALITY IN THE DIAMETER
Describe the meaning of the letters in the B of malignant melanoma. BORDERS - NOTCHED, SCALLOPED OR INDISTINCT
Describe the meaning of the letters in the C of malignant melanoma. COLORS - UNEVEN. RANGE TAN TO BROWN. BLACK TO RED
Describe the meaning of the letters in the D of malignant melanoma. DIAMETER - USUALLY LARGE THAN 6mm - LESS THAN ½ INCH
Describe the meaning of the letters in the E of malignant melanoma. EOLVING - ANY CHANGE POINTS TO DANGER
Describe a macule. Flat colored lesion white/brown or red.
Describe a papule. Small elevated lesion less than 0.5cm in diameter.
Describe a pustule. Vesicle (blister) containing purulent or cloudy fluid.
Describe a vesicle. Blister
Describe a comedome. Mass of sebum on skin.
Define a nodule. Marble like lesion greater than 0.5cm in diameter.
Define Dermatophytoses . Chronic superficial fungal infection classified by location on the body
Tinea capitis Round gray scaly lesion on scalp.
Tinea corporis Ringworm lesions scaled
Tinea unguimum Effect toenails
Tinea pedis Athlete’s foot
Tinea cruris Jock itch
Describe urticaria . Hives, itching redness and swelling called wheal.
State drug classification which relieves symptoms of urticaria. Antihistamines
Name 2 of the most common wingless parasites to infest humans Lice and scabies
List the etiology of shingles. Same as what causes chicken pox. Stress triggers it.
State the medical name for shingles. Herpes Zoster
Describe the physical (signs) of shingles. Acute inflamed dermatomal eruptions.
Give another name for a decubitus ulcer. Pressure ulcer
Treatment methods for a decubitus ulcer. Topicals/debriding agent/ antibiotics.
Etiology of psoriasis. Causes unknown-may be an autoimmune disorder.
List a medication name used to treat acne vulgaris! ProActive
State the etiology of keratoacanthoma. Benign growth smooth red dome-shaped papule w/ center crust.
Define acrochordon. Common begin skin growth or tags. Brownish, attached to skin by short stalk.
Define alopecia. Loss or absence of hair usually on scalp
List the structures involved in a 1st degree of burn Superficial epidermis.
List the structures involved in a 2nd degree of burn. Deep layer of epidermis.
List the structures involved in a 3rd degree of burn. Entire epidermis is charred or burned away. May extend into the subcutaneous tissue.
Describe the functions of Adipose tissue contained in the subcutaneous tissue. Stores fat as potential energy, cushions bony prominences; provides some insulation from cold.
True or False - Adipose tissue contributes to appetite, the use of insulin, and the activation of WBCs. True
Sarcoptes scabiei scabies - burrows under the skin.
Pediculus humanus capitis head lice
Pediculus humanus corporis body lice
Phthirus pubis pubis lice
Created by: kbcanarr