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CHAPTER 4

ANATOMY

QuestionAnswer
What is Metabolism Sum of all chemical reactions in the body
How does metabolism reactions occur? In pathways or cycles
2 types of metabolic reactions Anabolism and Catabolism
Anabolism Small molecules are built into larger ones..... requires energy
Catabolism Larger molecules are broke down into smaller ones.... releases energy
Example of Anabolic reaction Dehydration synthesis
What can be made using Anabolic reactions Polysaccharides, proteins, triglycerides
Anabolism requires ( 1. ) made during (. 2. ) 1. ATP. 2. Catabolism
What does Anabolism and Catabolism require Enezymes
What does enzymes do Controls reactions and speeds up reactions
Example of catabolic reactions Hydrolysis
What can be made (decompose) using catabolic reaction Carbohydrates. Proteins. Lipids
What is produced during Catabolism ATP
Traits of an enzymes (8) Protein. Globular Speed up reaction Re useable At the end of the reaction enzymes are unchanged Very specific Acts like a lock and key Most enzymes take the name of the substrate and ends with -ase
How can a enzyme be ruined Desaturation
Factors that can alter conformation of an enzyme Excessive heat Radiation Electricity Specific chemicals Extreme pH values Some poisons
What is denaturation Inactivation of an enzyme (or any other protein) due to an irreversible change in its conformation
What does denaturation do to enzyme Enzyme is unable to bind to its substrate
Define enzymes Controls rates of both catabolic and anabolic reactions
What does conformation mean shape of an enzyme
Cellular metabolism Sum of all chemical reaction occurring in a cell
Metabolic pathway Series of enzyme- controlled reactions leading to formation of a product
Each new (1) is the (2) of the previous (3) 1. Substrate 2. Product 3. Reaction
Rate- limiting enzyme Shuts off enzyme ( often the first) when making the max of something
Rate- limiting enzyme what kind of feedback Negative feedback
How do you shut off an enzyme Remove what activates it
What activates an enzyme Cofactors and Coenzyme
Cofactors Non-protein substance that combines with an enzyme to activates it
Coenzyme Organic molecule that acts as a cofactors. Which is an VITAMIN
What is energy The capacity to change something or to do work
Common forms of energy Heat Light Electrical energy Mechanical energy Chemical energy
What can energy NOT DO Be created or destroyed
What CAN energy DO Can be changed from one form to another
Cellular respiration Process that transfers energy from molecules and makes it available for cellular use
Wha type of energy does metabolic reactions use Chemical reactions
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) Carries energy in a form the cell can use Main energy carrying molecule in cell
ATP consist of Adenine Ribose (sugar) 3 phosphates in a chain
What is ADP (adenosine diphosphate) When ATP loses terminal phosphate
ADP can turn back into ATP by Attaching a third phosphate called phosphorylation which requires energy from cell respiration
Where is energy held In a chemical bond
Energy is released when Chemical bonds are broken
Oxidation Releases energy from glucose
Phosphorylation Add a phosphate back to ADP to make it ATP
Aerobic reaction Require Oxygen and make most of ATP
Anaerobic reaction Doesn't not require oxygen. And makes little ATP
Energy is transferred how 40% chemical energy 60% as heat. maintains body temperature
Cellular respiration of glucose occurs in 3 interconnected reactions Glycolysis Citric acid cycle Electron transport chain / Oxidative phosphorylation
Metabolic pathway is a Cycle
Stepwise reaction sequences Glycolysis Electron transport chain / Oxidative phosphorylation
Occurs in a cycle Critic acid cycle
Products of chemical energy Carbon dioxide Water ATP (chemical energy 40%) Heat 60%
Catabolic pathway For energy production
Anabolic pathway For storage
Excessive glucose can be converted into and stored as Fat Glycogen
Glycogen Most cells but liver and muscle cells store the most
Fat is stored in Adipose tissue
Information that instructs a cell or synthesize certain proteins is stored on the sequence of DNA
DNA stores instructions on how to produce protein that functions as Enzyme Blood proteins Structural proteins of muscle and connective tissue Antibodies Cell membrane components
Genetic Infomation Instructions to tell cell how to construct protein ; stored in DNA sequence
Gene Sequence of DNA that contains info for making 1 protein
What sugar is in DNA Deoxyribose
What are DNA bases A, C, G, T
What stand is DNA Double strand
What sugar is in RNA Ribose
What are RNA bases A, U, G, C
What is RNA stand Single strand
How many types of RNA 3. Types
in DNA what bonds with what A bonds with T G bonds with C
DNA replicates _______ mitosis Before
Whats the match (DNA) A- G- C- T- -T -C -G -A
When cell divides each daughter cell .... Receives identical DNA
DNA replication Process that produces an exact copy of a DNA molecules
DNA replication occurs in Interphase
Steps in DNA replication 1. Hydrogen bonds break between base pairs 2. Stands unwind and separate 3. New nucleotides pair with exposed bases 4. Other enzyme connect
3 bases = 1 amino acid
3 bases is a Triplet
DNA stores master copy of genetic code and remains in Nucleus
Protein synthesis occurs in Cytoplasm
RNA Copies and transfers information from DNA to cytoplasm ( helps make the protein)
RNA bases bond with what bases A bonds to U C bonds to G
What is transcription Process of copying DNA sequence onto an RNA sequence
mRNA (messenger RNA) Carries genetic code from DNA to ribosome
RNA Polymerase Enzyme that catalyzes the formation of mRNA from the proper strand of DNA
What are Codon's 3 bases in RNA
Protein synthesis occurs in Cytoplasm
Translation is When the ribosomes "reads" mRNA to make protein
DNA -- A T T A C C G mRNA --U A A U G G C This is ? Transcription
Anticodons 3 bases in tRNA
tRNA (Transfer RNA) Aligns amino acids during protein synthesis along the mRNA strand on the ribosome
Translation occurs In cytoplasm at ribosomes
Protein synthesis occurs On ribosomes in cytoplasm
rRNA Ribosomes structure and protein molecules
Mutation Changes in DNA sequences
Created by: Kellifrench