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Introduction Ana.

Intro to anatomy and physiology; chapter 1

What is Anatomy? study of the structure of body parts and their relationship with one another
Gross visible to the naked eye
3 types of Gross Anatomy Regional, systemic, developmental
Microscopic requires a microscope
2 types of Microscopic Anatomy Cytology, Histology
What is Physiology? study of the functioning of the body structural machinery and how the parts work to sustain life
Principle of complementarity of structure and function anatomy and physiology are inseparable; function always reflects structure, what structure can do depends on its specific form
levels of structural organization chemical, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Necessary life function are accomplished through HINT: there are 8 maintain boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth
interdependence of body cells all cells depend on organ systems to meet their survival needs, all body functions spread among different organ systems
5 survival needs nutrients, oxygen, water, stable body temp (37), atmospheric pressure (gas exchange)
Homostasis the same state, maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in enviroment; maintained by contributions of all organs systems,
Homoeostasis Control Mechansims (HCM) HINT: there are 3 Receptor (recieves stimulus), Control centre (processes stimulus), Effector (responds to stimulus)
Two types of HCM 1. Negative feedback mechanism 2. positive feedback mechanism
Negative feedback mechanism the response to the stimulus that acts to turn off stimulus e.g.. you are cold so you put on a jacket
Positive feedback mechanism the response to the stimulus that amplifies the stimulus eg. sex
anatomical position body erect, feet slightly apart with palms facing forward, thumbs pointing away from body
regional terms two major divisions of the body; head, neck, trunk, limb, appendicular ( bones), axial
sagittal plane divides body into left and right parts
Frontal (coronal) plane divides body into anterior and posterior (belly and back)
transverse (horizontal) plane divides body into superior and inferior planes (top and bottom)
Dorsal body cavity protects nervous system. Cranial cavity (encloses brain), Vertebral cavity (encases spinal cord)
Ventral body cavity houses internal organs. Thoracic cavity, abdominopelvic cavity
Body Cavity regions
Superior toward head
Inferior toward feet
Anterior nearer the front of body
Posterior nearer the back of body
medial nearer to the median plane of body
lateral farther from the median plane of body
proximal nearer to attachment of a limb or structure
distal farther away from attachment of limb or structure
superficial nearer to surface
deep farther from surface
Created by: carolinegurnsey