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Development & Birth

What are the placental hormones? Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) -maintains corpus luteum for 11-12 wks. Human placental lactogen (hPL)- regulates the maternal blood nutrient levels. Relaxin - relaxes birth canal
Development of the embryo. The first 8 weeks. All body systems begin to develop
Development of the fetus. Third month to birth. Amniotic sac a. Surrounds fetus b. Contains fluid to cushion and protect fetus
Changes in the mother during pregnancy. 1. Increase demands on heart, lungs, kidneys 2. Increased nutritional needs 3. Ultrasound used to monitor pregnancy and delivery.
The four stages of labor. 1. Contractions and cervical dialation 2. Delivery of the baby 3. Expultion of the afterbirth 4. Contraction of the uterus, repair episiotomy, control bleeding.
What is a Cesarean Section? An incision through the abdominal and uterine wall to remove the fetus.
Multiple births 1. Fraternal twins formed from two different ova and have separate amniotic sacs. 2. Identicle Twins develop from a single zygote and can have one or two sacs but must have own umbilical cord.
Multiple births 3. Larger multiples follow either pattern or a combination. 4.Increased by fertility drugs.
Lactation Secretion of milk
Colostrum First mammary secretion
Mammary gland hormones HPL- prepares breasts for lactation Prolactin- stimulates secretory cells Oxytocin- promotes letdown (ejection) of milk
Advantages of breastfeeding a. Reduces infections b. Transfers antibodies c. Provides best form of nutrition d. Emotional satisfaction
Immature (premature) infant Born before organ systems mature
Preterm Born before the 37th week or weighing less than 2500 grams (5.5 pounds)
The term "live birth" is used If the baby breathes or shows any evidence of life such as, heartbeat, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or movement of voluntary muscles
Abortion Loss of fetus before the 20th week or weighing less than 500 grams (1.1 pounds)
Fetal death Loss of fetus after 8 weeks of pregnancy
Fetal skin is protected by a cheeselike material called _______. Vernix caseosa
Ectopic pregnancy Pregnancy outside of the uterus; commonly in the oviduct
Placenta previa Improper attachment of placenta to the uterus, usually over or near the cervix.
Placental abruption Separation of placenta from the uterus, most common in multigravidas, and may require termination of the pregnancy to save the mother's life.
Pregnancy Induced Hypertention (preeclampsia) (PIH) symptoms: Hypertension, protein in urine (proteinuria), general edema, and sudden weight gain. The cause of this disorder is a homone imbalance that results in constriction of blood vessel.
Eclampsia Is caused by untreated preeclampsia, with the onset of kidney failure, convulsions, and coma during pregnancy or after delivery, the result may be the death of both the mother and the infant.
Puerperal infections infections related to childbirth
Hydatidiform mole or hydatid mole Benign overgrowth of placental tissue. The placenta dilates and resembles grapelike cysts, the growth may invade the uterine wall, causing it to rupture.
Choriocarcinoma A very malignant tumor that is made of placental tissue, it is rare but spread rapidly and if not treated may be fatal within 3-12 months.
Lactation disturbances Malnutrition or anemia Emotional disturbances Abnormalities of the mammory glands Mastitis - treated w/antibiotics - can still breastfeed
The total period of pregnancy, from fertilization to birth is 38 weeks or 266 days 40 weeks or 280 days from last menstrual period (LMP)
The earliest that a fetus could survive outside of the uterus is after the 20th week
How does cortisol from the fetal adrenal cortex affect the mother It inhibits the mother's progesterone which causes an increase of estrogen compared to progesterone which stimulates uterine contractions.
Blood traveling through the umbilical arteries is relatively ____ in oxygen. Low
Blood traveling through the umbilical vein is relatively _____ in oxygen. High
Human Placental Lactogen A placental hormone that regulates maternal blood nutrient levels
Prolactin A pituitary hormone that stimulates maternal milk production
Oxytocin A pituitary hormone that stimulates uterine contractions
Relaxin A placental hormone that softens the cervix, which widens the birth canal
Humon Chorionic Gonadotropin A placental hormone that stimulates the ovaries to secrete progesterone and estrogen.
Functions of the placenta a. nourishment b. gas exchange c.removal of waste d. production of hormones
Progesterone Is essential for maintaining pregnancy.
Why is the risk of miscarriage highest at week 12 of pregnancy. That is when progesterone production switches from the corpus luteum to the placenta.
How does blood travel throgh the fetus' heart? It comes from the placenta via the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cave by way of the ductus venosus to the heart. Rt. atrium > Lt atrium through the foramen ovale > pul artery > ductus arteriosus back to the placenta through the umbilical arteries
Created by: cathyb