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Circulatory System

Chapter #12

What is the heart & where is it located? Triangular hollow muscular organ/ located in the mediastinum ( space or cavity between the lungs. )
2/3 of the heart is found? to the left of the midline
What protects the heart? the Sternum anteriorly / the Vertebrae posteriorly
What is the size of the heart and how much does it weigh? roughly the size of a closed fist, weighing less than a pound.
blunt tip or lower edge of the heart APEX.
Where is the Apex located? Lies on the diaphragm/ pointing towards the left.
sound at Apex of the heart Apical beat. heard at the 5th/ 6th ribs at midpoint of left clavicle
What is CPR? Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
The heart has 4 chambers, what are they? 2 Atria 2 Ventricles
Atria 2 upper chambers/ Smaller than ventricles/ thinner walls/ less muscular/ recieves blood from veins/ known as RECIEVING CHAMBERS/
Ventricles 2 lower chambers/ larger than atria/ more muscular/ thicker walls/ blood is discharged into the arteries from the heart
Pericardium covering sac of the heart
Parietal Pericardium outer Layer
Visceral Pericardium innner layer directly covering the heart (EPICARDIUM)
Pericardial Space found in between the two layers of the pericardium
Endocardium Lines the inside of the heart chambers ( inner )
Myocardium Muscle layers of the heart ( middle )
Relaxation of the Heart Diastole
Contraction of the Heart Systole
Atria Systole Always comes first before Ventricular Systole
Heart Valves: Atrioventricular Valves (av) Between an atrium/ ventricleBicuspid Valve/ Tricuspid Valve
Heart Valves: Semilunar Valves Pulmonary semilunar valve/ aortic semilunar valve
Valves on the right side of the heart Tricuspid/ Pulmonary Valve
Valves on the left side of the heart Bicuspid (mitral)/ Aortic Valve.
heart sound: LUB first heart sound made by closure of the AV Valves
heart sound: DUB second heart sound made by the semilunar valves
Pulmonary Circulation Movement of the blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the LUNG
Systemetic Circulation Movement of the blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE to the whole body.
Coronary Circulation Coronary arteries from the AORTA, brings blood to the heart muscles.
Cardiac Cycle Complete Heartbeat.-one systole -one diastole-0.8 seconds for each cycle
What is the sequence of electrical conduction of the heart Sinoatrial Node > AV Node > AV bundles > Purkinje Fibers.
EKG / ECG records of the hearts electrical activity
Depolarization Contraction of the heart
Repolarization Relaxation of the heart
ECG tracing waves. P waves / QRS waves / T waves
P WAVES depolarization of the atria
QRS WAVES depolarization of the ventricles
T WAVES repolarization of the ventricles
What are the 3 Blood Vessels? ARTERIES/ VEINS/ CAPILLARIES
ARTERIES carries blood away from the heart to capillaries
VEINS carries blood back to the heart from capillaries
CAPILLARIES carries blood from the arterioles to the venules
Functions of the ARTERIES helps maintain blood pressure/ high pressure vessels
Functions of the Veins acts as a blood RESERVIORS (storage area)/ low pressure vessels
Functions of the Capillaries serve as exchange vessels for NUTRIENTS/ WASTE/ FLUIDS - microscopic in size / only one layer (tunica intima).
What are the 3 layers of Blood Vessels Tunica Adventitia (connective)/ Tunica Media (Smooth) / Tunica Intima (endothelium)
No Valves Arteries
Has Valves Veins
What part of the Digestive System recieves venous blood. Spleen Stomach Pancreas Gallbladder intestines (to the livers)
Hepatic Portal Circulation Maintains glucose Homeostasis/ aka SECOND CAPILLARY SYSTEM ( lots of capillaries in liver)/ recieves venous blood from the digestive system
Blood Pressure Push or force of blood in the blood vessels.
Highest blood pressure Arteries esp. the AORTA
lowest blood pressure in the VEINS esp SUPERIOR / INFERIOR VENA CAVAE
what are the factors that will increase blood pressure? BLOOD VOLUME/ HEART RATE/ BLOOD VISCOSITY
Instrument used to measure blood pressure Sphygmomanometer
what is Korotkoff sounds? loud tapping sounds heard through the stethoscope
First sound heard (blood pressure) Systolic pressure
Last sound heard (blood pressure) Diastolic pressure
what is the rate normal blood pressure? 120/ 80 mmHg
What is the High Blood pressure rate? 140/ 90 mmHg
The Pulse can be felt at how many major points and what are its locations? 9 major points: Superfacial Temporal/ Facial/ Carotid/ Axillary/ Brachial/ Radial/ Femoral/ Popliteal/ Dorsalis Pedalis Arteries.
Created by: mzx809



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