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Skeletal System

Long Bones Long longitudinal axes, and expanded end
Long Bone examples Forearm, thigh bone, phalanges
Short Bone Cube like, with lengths and widths roughly equal
Short Bone examples Carpals and tarsals
Flat Bone Plate like structure with broad surfaces
Flat Bone examples Ribs, scapulae, and some bones of the skull
Irregular Bones Variety of shapes and are usually connected to several other bones
Irregular Bone examples Vertebra and some facial expressions
Parts of a Long Bone Epiphysis, diaphysis, articular cartilage, periosteum, compact Bone, medullary cavity, endosteum
Epiphysis Outer joints of a long bone
Articulate cartilage Outer portion of the epiphysis is coated with a layer of hyaline cartilage called ________
Diaphysis Shaft of the bone
Periosteum Bone enclosed by tough vascular covering of fibrous tissue
Medullary cavity Compact bone in diaphysis of a long bone forms a semi-rigid tube with a hollow chamber called _________
Endosteum Thin membrane containing bone-forming cells
Marrow Specialized type of soft CT
Osteon Osteocytes and layers of intercellular material concentrically clustered around a central canal forms _________
Spongy bone Made up by trabiculae
Osteoblasts Make bone
Osteoclasts Breaks down bone
Osteocytes Mature bone cell
The 1st few weeks of prenatal development Parts of the skeletal system form during _______
Intramembranous Bone examples Flat bones (skull)
Endochondral Bone examples Most all bones
Intramembranous Bones During development, membrane like layers of CT appear at the area of future bones. Layers supplied with blood vessels and tissue arrange around vessels. Cells enlarge and change into osteoblasts.
Endochondral Bones Develop as hyaline cartilage that is later replaced by bone tissue
Endochondral Bone Ossification Primary ossification centers appear in the diaphysis, whereas secondary ossification appears in the epiphysis. Epiphysis plate remains between the primary and secondary ossification centers. Development proceeds with masses
Epiphyseal plate ______ ______ consists of layers of cells: resting cells, young cells, older enlarging cells, and dying cells; are responsible for lengthening
Long Bones ____ ____ continue to lengthen until epiphyseal plates are ossified
Medullary Cavity Action of osteoclasts forms _____ _____
Osteoclasts and osteoblasts _____ and _____ continually remodel bone
Nearly Constant Total mass of bone remains _____ _____ throughout life
Affects Bone Development Sunlight, hormonal secretions, and exercise
Abnormal development Deficiencies of vitamins A, C, and/or D result in _____ _____
Exercise _____ thickens and strengthens bone tissue
Thin tissue Lack of activity can cause ______ _______
Vitamin A Function osteoblast and osteoclast Activity (Function of _____)
Vitamin C Function Collagen synthesis (function of ______)
Vitamin D Function Calcium (Ca++) absorption (Function of ______)
Vitamin A Source Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach (source of _____)
Vitamin C Source Citrus fruits and strawberries (Source of ______)
Vitamin D Source Sunlight, eggs, dairy (source of _______)
Hypertrophy Strengthening bones
Atrophy Lack of exercise that weakens the bones
Functions of skeletal system Shape, support, protection, blood cell formation, inorganic salt storage (function of _______)
Red marrow Production of erythrocytes (red blood cells)
Yellow Marrow Stores fat and is inactive in blood cell production
Hemopoiesis Process of blood cell formation
Hemopoiesis process Begins in York, which lies outside the embryo. Later in development, blood cells are manufactured in the liver, spleen, and in adulthood, forms in red marrow
Intercellular matrix ______ _______ of bone tissue contains collagen and inorganic mineral salts
Calcium phosphate Crystals that are formed are a type of _______ _______
Calcium Body requires ______ for a number of vital metabolic processes (blood clot formation, nerve impulse conduction, muscle cell contraction )
Parathyroid glands; parathyroid; osteoclasts If calcium levels are LOW, _____ _____ releases _______ hormone to stimulate _______ that break down bone matrix to release calcium into bloodstream
Thyroid gland; calcitonin; osteoblasts Calcium levels are HIGH, _____ ______ releases ______ which stimulates ________ to deposit calcium into bones
Bone classifications (5) Long, short, irregular, flat, sesamoid
Sesamoid Bone example Kneecaps
Lacuna Bony chambers that osteocytes are located in
Pituitary Dwarfism Deficiency in human growth hormone leads to _____ _____
Estrogen Hormone produced by females to prevent osteoporosis
Spongy bone Largely composes epiphyses with thin layers of compact bone on their surfaces
Trabeculae Branching bony plates
Osteon Cylinder shaped unit formed by osteocytes in layers of intercellular material concentrically clustered around a central canal
Epiphyseal plate Band of cartilage
Growth hormone Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates division of cartilage cells in the epiphyseal discs
Pituitary gigantism Condition that happens of excess group hormone is released before the epiphyseal disk ossify
Levers Simple mechanical device consisting of a rod, fulcrum, weight, and a source of energy that is applied to some point of the rod
Hemoglobin Red, Oxygen carrying pigment contained within red blood cells
Sutures Irregular lines that flat bones of the skull tightly join along
Haversian Canal Central canals
Volkmann's Canal Transverse perforating canal's
Lacunae Hollow cavity
Haversian system Cylinder shaped unit (_____ system)
Canaliculu Micro scopic canals that connect the lacunae of bone tissue
Greenstick fracture Incomplete, in the break occurs on the convex surface of the bend in the bone
Fissured Involves an incomplete longitudinal break
Comminuted Complete and fragments the bone
Transverse Complete, in the break occurs at a right angle to the axis of the bone
Oblique Occurs at an angle other than a right angle to the axis of the bone
Spiral Caused by twisting a bone excessively
Cartilage ______ is found on the outer portion of the epiphysis
Dense CT _____ __Is found in the compact bone on the surface of a long bone
Canaliculi _______ connects osteocytes
Lamella Osteocytes form rings called _____
Cancellous bone Another name for spongy bone
Articulate cartilage Cushions the ends of bones at their joints
Compact bone Arranged in concentric layers
Created by: giannariche