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Tissues and skin

Tissue a group of closely associated cells that perform related functions and are similar in structure
Main function of epithelial tissue covering
main function of connective tissue support
main function of muscle tissue movement
main function of nervous tissue control
Epithelial tissue: -covers body surfaces and lines body cavities -forms most glands
Function of Epithelium: -protection -absorption -secretion -ion transport -filtration -forms slippery surfaces
simple one layer of cells
stratified more than one layer
Determine cell shape by looking at the __________ layer apical or top
Squamous flat and scale-like
cuboidal cube-like
columnar column-like
endothelium slick lining of hollow organs
mesothelium lines peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities. covers visceral organs of those cavities
simple squamous single layer of flat cells with disc-shaped nuclei
function of simple squamous -passage of materials by passive diffusion and filtration -secretes lubricating substances (serous fluid) in bladder, heart, lungs
example of passive diffusion gas exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen
___________ ____________ is found in the alveoli simple squamous
location of simple squamous -renal corpuscles: linings of heart, blood, and lymphatic vessels -alveoli of lungs: lining of anterior body cavity
simple cuboidal single layer of cube-like cells with large, spherical, central nuclei
function of simple cuboidal secretion and absorption
Location of simple cuboidal -kidney tubules -small glands -ovaries
simple columnar single layer of column-shaped cells with oval nuclei. some have cilia on apical surface
columnar are the only cells that can contain ________ cells goblet
Goblet cells create mucus when combined with water
Function of simple columnar -absorption -secretion of mucus and enzymes
ciliated simple columnar lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and uterus
non-ciliated simple columnar lines digestive tract, gallbladder, and ducts of some glands
pseudostratified columnar -cells originate at basement membrane -only tall cells reach the top surface -may contain goblet cells or cilia -nuclei lie at varying heights -gives false impression of several layers
function of pseudostratified columnar secretion of mucus and propulsion of mucus by cilia
location of non-ciliated pseudostratified columnar -ducts of male reproductive organs -ducts of large glands
location of ciliated pseudostratified columnar lines trachea and upper respiratory tract
stratified squamous thickest epithelial tissue. adapted for protection
keratinized stratified squamous location surface cells are full of keratin and dead cells ex: skin
non-keratinized stratified squamous location forms moist lining of body openings ex: esophagus, mouth, vagina
function of stratified squamous protects underlying tissues in frictional areas
stratified cuboidal function protection
stratified cuboidal location largest ducts of sweat, mammary, and saliva glands
stratified columnar male urethra and large ducts of some glands
transitional function stretches and permits distension of urinary bladder
Transitional location ureters, urinary bladder, part pf urethra
Microvilli found in digestive system. helps increase surface area
Cilia contains nine pairs of _________ microtubules
pairs of microtubules are _________ axoneme
adhesion proteins link plasma membrane of adjacent cells
desomosomes 2 disc-like plaques connected across intercellular space. joined by proteins called cadherins.
tight junction close off intercellular space. prevent molecules from passing between cells of epithelial tissue
gap junction passageway between 2 adjacent cells. lets small molecules move directly between neighboring cells. cells are connected by hollow cylinders of protein
Exocrine glands carry products from glands to epithelial
types of exocrine glands mucus-secreting sweat and oil salivary liver and pancreas
_________ protects and lubricates many internal body surfaces mucus
Multicellular exocrine glands basic parts: epithelium-walled duct and secretory unit Classified as simple or compound. Categorized by secretory unit: tubular, alveolar, tubuloalveolar
Endocrine glands ductless glands. secretes hormones or other substances directly into bloodstream
Connective tissue is the _______ most diverse and abundant tissue
connective tissue main classes: -connective tissue -cartilage -bone tissue -blood
loose connective cushions organs provides support but permits independent movement
dense connective tissue provides firm attachment. conducts pull of muscles. reduces friction between muscles. stabilizes relative positions of bone. helps prevent overexpansion of organs
areolar connective underlies epithelial. surrounds small nerves and vessels. wraps and cushions organs. holds and conveys tissue fluid.
function of connective support and binding to other tissues. holding body fluids. defending body against infection. storing nutrients as fat
types of protein fibers in areolar connective collagen, reticular, elastic
Areolar connective is the ________________________________ main battlefield in fight against infection and site of inflammation
fibroblasts make up _____________ aerolar
adipose tissue closely packed adipocytes. nuclus is pushed to the side
function of adipose tissue provides reserve food fuel. insulates. supports and protects organs
location of adipose tissue under skin, around kidneys, behind eyes, within abdomen and breasts
reticular connective tissue network of reticular fibers in loose ground substance
function of reticular connective form a soft internal skeleton
location of reticular connective lymph nodes, bone marrow, spleen
dense irregular connective tissue irregularly arranged collagen fibers. some elastic fibers and fibroblasts
function of dense irregular connective withstands tension and provides structural strength
location of dense irregular connective dermis, submucosa of digestive tract. fribrous capsules of joints and organs
dense regular connective tissue primarily parallel collagen fibers. fibrolblasts and some elastic fibers. poorly vascularized
function of dense regular connective tissue attaches muscle to bone (tendons) and bone to bone (ligaments) and withstands great stress
location of dense regular connective tissue tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses, fascia, muscles
cartilage firm, flexible tissue, matrix contains up to 80% water. chondrocyte
Types of cartilage: hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
hyaline cartilage appears______________ glassy
function of hyaline cartilage supports and reinforces. resilient cushion. resisits repetitive stress
location of hyaline cartilage fetal skeleton, end of long bones, connector of ribs to sternum, nose, trachea, larynx
elastic cartilage more elastic than hyaline
function of elastic cartilage maintains shape of structure. allows great flexibility
location of elastic cartilage external ear, epiglottis
fibrocartilage less firm matrix than hyaline. thick collagen fibers predominate
function of fibrocartilage tensile strength and ability to absorb compressive shock
location of fibrocartilage intervertebral discs, pubic symphasis, discs of knee joint
bone tissue calcified matrix containing many collagen fibers. very well vascularized
osteoblasts secrete collagen fibers and matrix
osteocytes mature bone cells in lacunae
function of bone supports and protects organs. provides levers and attachment for muscles. stores calcium and fat. marrow
marrow is the site for _____________________________ blood cell formation
blood tissue atypical connective tissue. consists of cells surrounded by nonliving matrix.
function of blood transport respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes
skeletal muscle long cylindrical cells. multinucleic. obvious striations.
function of skeletal muscles voluntary movement. manipulation of environment. facial expression
cardiac muscle tissue branching cells, striated. uninucleic.
function of cardiac muscle contracts to propel blood into circulatory system
smooth muscle tissue spindle-shaped with central nuclei. forms sheets. no striations
function of smooth muscle propel substances along internal passageways, involuntary control
location of smooth muscle walls of hollow organs
nervous tissue contains neurons and neuroglical cells
neurons are __________ cells excitatory
function of neural tissue transmit electrical signals from sensory receptors to effectors
location of neural tissue brain, spinal cord, nerves
histamine increases permeability of capillaries
critical burns 25% second degree 10% third degree third degree burns to face, hands, feet
primary functions of skin protection, temperature regulation, sense of touch, excretes waste, synthesizes vitamin D
skin is made of ______________ tissue stratified squamous
layers of the epidermis stratum corneum stratum lucidum stratum granulosum stratum spinosum stratum basal
dermis is made of ____________ tissue dense irregular connective
hypodermis contains adipose tissue and major skin blood vessels
red hair contains ___________ protein trichosiderin
goosebumps caused by the contraction of arrector pilli
sebaceous glands produces sebum
eccrine glands most common on forehead, neck, back
apocrine glands found in axillary regions, groin, around nipples
when body heat rises: blood is moved to the periphery and skin surface deep blood vessels contract to restrict blood vessels dermal vessels dilate allowing heat to escape heart beats faster sweat glands active
when body temperature drops: dermal vessels contract sweat glands inactive skeletal muscles contract shivering occurs
melanin yellow, brown, or black pigments
carotene orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables
hemoglobin red coloring from blood cells in dermis capillaries
cyanosis skin appears bluish due to low oxygen concentration
jaundice yellowish skin tone due to liver malfunction
Created by: naomirsorenson