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Anatomy

Anatomy exam II Thoracic NS and Autonomics

QuestionAnswer
The _____ consists of the brain and spinal cord central nervous system (CNS)
The _____ integrates and coordinates incoming and outgoing neural signals and carries out higher mental functions, such as thinking and learning CNS
The ____ consists of nerve fibers and cell bodies outside the CNS that conduct impulses to or away from the CNS PNS
The PNS has ____ that convey neural impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands efferent (motor) fibers
The PNS has ____ that convey neural impulses to the CNS from sense organs and sensory receptors afferent (sensory) fibers
Spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord as rootlets, which converge to form , consisting of ____ fibers, and a posterior root, consisting of _____ fibers motor, sensory
The cell bodies of motor neurons are located in the _____ of spinal cord gray matter anterior horn
The cell bodies of sensory neurons are located in _____ posterior root ganglia
The posterior and anterior nerve roots unite to form a mixed spinal nerve, which immediately divides into ____ and ____ anterior and posterior rami
The anterior rami of nerves T1-T11 form the _____ that run through the intercostal spaces intercostal nerves
The anterior ramus of nerve T12 is known as the ____ subcostal nerve
The intercostal nerves innervate the intercostal muscles and give off ___ and ____ lateral and anterior cutaneous branches
Small _____ of the intercostal nerves can be found in the intercostal space along the ____ border of the lower rib collateral branches; superior
The ___ consists of _____ fibers that stimulate smooth (involuntary) muscle, modified cardiac muscle, and glands ANS (viceral; visceral efferent (motor)
Viceral efferent motor fibers are accompanied by _____ that conduct visceral pain impulses and regulate visceral function viceral afferent (sensory) fibers
The parasympathetic division leaves the CNS in association with cranial nerves ___, ___, ___, and ___ and with spinal nerves ___ and ___ III, VII, IX, and X; S2 to S4
The sympathetic division leaves the spinal cord with the somatic components of spinal nerves ____ and ____ T1 to L2 (or sometimes L3)
The _____ division promotes normal visceral function parasympathetic
The _____ division prepares the body to “fight or flight.” sympathetic
In both divisions of the ANS, conduction of impulses from the CNS to the effector organ involves a ______ neuron presynaptic and a postsynaptic
The axon of a presynaptic neuron ____ on the cell body of a postsynaptic neuron in a ganglion synapses
____ synapse in ganglia on or near the effector organ parasympathetic neurons
_____ synapse in paravertebral or prevertebral ganglia. sympathetic neurons
______ are linked to form right and left sympathetic trunks (chains) on each side of the vertebral column paravertebral ganglia
_____ are located near the origins of the main branches of the abdominal aorta and named according to the adjacent branch prevertebral ganglia
Prevertebral ganglia include ____, ____, and ____ celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric ganglia
The cell bodies of presynaptic sympathetic neurons are located in the _____ of the spinal cord at levels T1 through L2 intermediolateral columns (IMLs)
The axons of presynaptic neurons leave the spinal cord through the _____ of T1-L2 and enter the _____ anterior roots; anterior rami
After going throught the anterior root,the presynaptic neurons enter the _____ via ___ sympathetic trunck via white rami communicantes
Communicantes is the plural name for ____ ramus
In the presynaptic trunks, the presynaptic fibers can ____ and synapse in a higher paravertebral ganglion ascend
In the presynaptic trunks, the presynaptic fibers can ____ in the paravertebral ganglionm of the ____ level synapse; same
In the presynaptic trunks, the presynaptic fibers can _____ and synapse in the lower paravertebral ganglion descend
In the presynaptic trunks, the presynaptic fibers can pass through the ____ without synapsing into a ______ to a prevertebral ganglion, where it synapses sympathetic trunk; abdominopelvic splanchnic nerve
Each presynaptic sympathetic fiber synapses with ____ postsynaptic fibers 30 or more
Postsynaptic fibers destined for the neck, body wall, and limbs, leave the sympathetic trunks via _____ and enter adjacent anterior rami gray rami communicantes
Postsynaptic sympathetic fibers enter all branches of ____ spinal nerves, including the posterior rami all 31 pairs of
Postsynaptic sympathetic fibers destined for the heart, lungs, and esophagus pass through _____ to enter the cardiac, pulmonary, and esophageal plexuses cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves AKA: sympathetic cardiac nerves
The _____ arise from the sympathetic trunk in the thorax, where they are known as the _____ splanchnic nerves abdominopelvic splanchnic nerves; thoracic
The _____ are divided into the nerves named the greater, lesser, and least splanchnic nerves thoracic splanchnic nerves
Parasympathetic innervation of the thoracic viscera is provided by the _____ vagus nerves (CN X)
Branches of the vagus nerves join branches of the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves to form the ___, ____ and _____ plexuses cardiac, pulmonary, and esophageal plexuses
The heart is innervated by autonomic nerve fibers (parasympathetic and sympathetic) from the ____ cardiac plexus
The cardiac plexus is located on the posterior surface of the ____ ascending aorta
The cardiac plexus is located on the bifurcation of the ______ pulmonary trunk
The cardiac plexus is located on the anterior surface of the bifurcation of the _____ trachea
The lungs are innervated by nerve fibers from the ____ and _____ left and right pulmonary plexuses
The arasympathetic contributions from the pulmonary plexuses come from the ____ and nerves vagus; recurrent laryngeal
The sympathetic contributions from the pulmonary plexuses come from the _____ nerves cardiopulmonary splanchnic
The esophagus is innervated by nerve fibers from the _____ esophageal plexus
The parasympathetic contributions of from the esophageal plexus come from the _____ vagus nerve
The sympathetic contributions come from the esophageal plexus comes from the _____ cardiopulmonary sphanchnic nerves
Created by: luckynikki