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Anatomy

Anatomy exam II Mediastinum

QuestionAnswer
The superior mediastinum borders ____ anteriorly manubrium of sternum
The superior mediastinum borders ____ posteriorly T1-T4 vertebral bodies
The superior mediastinum borders ____ laterally mediastinal parts of the parietal pleura
The superior mediastinum borders ____ superiorly superior thoracic aperture
The superior mediastinum borders ____ inferiorly transverse plane between the sternal angle and the intervertebral disc between T4-T5
The _____ is an asymmetric, bilobed structure located immediately posterior to the manubrium of the sternum thymus
The thymus is involved in the early development of the _____ and is a large structure in _____ immune system; children
Thymus begins to atrophy after _____, shows considerable size variation in adults, and is barely identifiable as an organ in elderly individuals puberty
The right and left _____ are located immediately posterior to the _____ and form on each side at the junction between the internal jugular and subclavian veins brachiocephalic veins; thymus
The brachiocephalic veins join at the lower edge of the right first costal cartilage to form the _____ superior vena cava
The thoracic portion of the aorta can be divided into the _____, the _____, and the ____ ascending aorta, the arch of the aorta, and the thoracic (descending) aorta
Only the _____ of the thoracic aorta is located in the superior mediastinum arch of the aorta
The arch of aorta has three large branches arising from its superior border: the ____, the _____ and the _____ the left subclavian artery, the left common carotid artery, and the brachiocephalic trunk
The brachiocephalic trunk gives rise to the ____ and the ____ right subclavian and right common carotid arteries
The _____ is a flexible tube formed by a series of C-shaped transverse cartilaginous rings. trachea
The trachea forms the section of the respiratory tract _____ to the larynx inferior
At the T4-T5 vertebral level, the trachea divides into the ____ and the _____ right and left main bronchi
The _____ arise from spinal segments C3-5 and provide innervation to the diaphragm and its associated membranes phrenic nerves
The phrenic nerves descend through the _____ and then along the pericardial sac, within the fibrous pericardium, _____ to the root of the lung superior mediastinum; anterior
The phrenic nerves innervate the ____ pleura , ____ pericardium and the ____ layer of the serous pericardium mediastinal pleura; the fibrous pericardium; and the parietal
The _____ (CN X) provide _____ innervation to the thoracic and abdominal viscera vagus nerves; parasympathetic
The vagus nerve descends through both the ____ and ____ mediastinum on their way to the abdomen superior and posterior
The right and left vagus nerves give rise to the _____ nerves, which innervate the muscles of the larynx right and left recurrent laryngeal
The ____ nerve passes under the right subclavian artery before ascending to the larynx right recurrent laryngeal
The _____ nerve passes under the arch of aorta artery before ascending to the larynx left recurrent laryngeal
Due to the inferior position of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, it is highly susceptible to compression by a pathologic mass, which can lead to _____ to vocal cord paralysis and hoarseness of the voice
_______, often due to the spread of lung cancer, is a common cause of compression of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve lymph node enlargement
____ typically performed on patients who present with a hoarse voice Chest x-rays
The anterior mediastibum borders _____ anteriorly body of sternum
The anterior mediastibum borders _____ posteriorly pericardium
The anterior mediastibum borders _____ laterally mediastinal parts of the parietal pleura
The anterior mediastibum borders _____ superiorly transverse plane between the sternal angle and the intervertebral disc between T4-T5
The anterior mediastibum borders _____ inferiorly diaphragm
The posterior mediastinum borders _____ anteriorly pericardium
The posterior mediastinum borders _____ posteriorly T5-T12 vertebral bodies
The posterior mediastinum borders _____ laterally mediastinal parts of the parietal pleura
The posterior mediastinum borders _____ superiorly transverse plane between the sternal angle and the intervertebral disc between T4-T5
The posterior mediastinum borders _____ inferiorly diaphragm
The ____ is a muscular tube that runs from the pharynx to the stomach esophagus
The esophagus descends through both the _____ on its way to the abdomen superior and posterior mediastinum
The esophagus receives part of its innervation from the ____ vagus nerves
The left vagus nerve continues as the _____ anterior vagal trunk
The right vagus nerve continues as the _____ posterior vagal trunk
The _____ and the _____ are major components of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system sympathetic trunks and thoracic splanchnic nerves
As the thoracic aorta descends through the posterior mediastinum, it gives off _____, _____ and the _____ arteries posterior intercostal; bronchial; esophageal
The posterior intercostal arteries supply _____ the lower nine intercostal spaces (3-11)
The bronchial arteries supply the _____ bronchi and lungs
The esophageal arteries supply the _____ esophagus
The azygos system of veins is formed by the _____ on the right and the _____ on the left azygos vein; hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos veins
Both sides of the azygos system of the vein drain blood from the body wall to the ______ superior vena cava
In the case of a obstruction of the _____, blood may be rerouted through the azygos vein in order to return to the heart. This typically results in substantial _____ of the azygos vein inferior vena cava; dilation
The _____ is the channel through which lymph from most of the body is returned to the venous system thoracic duct
The thoracic duct begins as a saccular dilation, _____ extends superiorly along with the azygos vein, and empties into the junction of the left subclavian and left internal jugular veins the chyle cistern (cisterna chyli)
The right arm and the right side of the head and neck are drained by the _____ right lymphatic duct
Created by: luckynikki