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Muscles

Muscles of the Human Body

QuestionAnswer
What is Epimysium Connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle
What is Perimysium Connective tissue that surrounds the fascicle
What is Endomysium Connective Tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers
The combing form of _____________________ means Strength sthen/o
Define Origin Attachment of the muscle to the bone and it does not move
Define Insertion Attachment of the muscle to the bone which causes motion
Skeletal Muscle attaches to what Bones
Smooth Muscles attach to what Walls of the hollow visceral organs and blood vessels
Cardiac muscles attach to what Wall of the heart
What is a myofibrils A bundle of muscle cells
What are the four phases of a muscle twitch in order Latent Phase, Contraction phase, relaxation phase and refractory phase
What does intrinsic muscle mean? A muscle that has an origin and insertion located in the same body region.
What does entrinsic Muscle mean A muscle that has an origin and insertion located in two body regions
Define Sarcolemma Cell Membrane of he muscle cell
Define Sarcoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum of the muscle cell
Define Sarcomeres Repeated functional units that comprise a myofibril. Each myofibril is composed of thick and thing myofilaments arranged in ___________________
Fixator a muscle that holds an origin stable for another muscle
Synergists muscles that have the same action
Prime Mover The main muscle of the synergists that preforms the action
Antagonist A muscle that has an opposing action
Flexion Action that bends a part of the body anteriorly, such as flexing the elbow. Exception is the knee
Extension The action that bends a part of the body posteriorly, such as straightening the arm at the arm at the elbow. ** Knee **
Abduction Movement of a part of the body away from the midline *Like jumping jacks Stage 1)
Adduction Movement of a part of the body towards the midline. (Like jumping jacks stage 2)
Protraction Movement that brings part of the body forward ** Jaw**
Retraction Movement that brings part of the body backwards. **JAW**
Dorsiflexion Position of standing on the heels with the toes pointing up off of the floor
Plantar Flexion Position of standing on tiptoes with the heels of of the floor
Inversion Position in which the soles of the feet are together facing each other
Eversion Position in which the soles of the feet point away from each other
Rotation The act of spinning on an axis
Circumduction The act of making a circle with part of the body
Supination Rotation that turns the palms up
Pronation Rotation that turns the palms down
Neuromuscular Junction Stimulation of a muscle cell by a nerve happens at this junction
Acetylcholine An electrical stimulation along the nerve cell results in the release of this neurotransmitter.
What fits into receptors on the muscle cell to stimulate it to contract Acetylcholine
A minimal amount of stimulus called a ______ is needed for the muscle to respond. Treshold
As long as the threshold is reached, the muscle cell will contract in an ____________________ manner. All or nothing
The ______________________ theory of muscle contraction involves thick myofilaments grabbing thin myofilaments and pulling them towards the center of hte sarcomere Sliding filament theory
A contraction of a muscle cell in response to a single nerve stiimulus Twitch
A sustained contraction due to repetitive nerve signals Tetany
The ____________________________ of the nerve impulses is what determines if this is a twitch and tetany contraction. Frequency
A ______________ is a single nerve cell and all of the muscle cells it stimulates Motor Unit
What is Recruitment Getting more motor units involved
The more and more motor units can be ________ to achieve a larger motion recruited
In a ________ contraction, tension in the muscle remains constant as the muscle shortens. Isotonic
In a _________________ contraction, tension in the muscle increases but there is no shortening of the muscle Isometric
__________________ fibers are specialized for aerobic respiration, so they do not fatigue quickly. Slow Twitch
____________________ fibers are specialized for anaerobic respiration and therefore fatigue quickly Fast-twitch
_______________ is composed of long, striated cells with multiple nuclei pushed off to the side. The cells are under voluntary control Skeletal muscle tissues
_________________ is composed of branched, striated cells with a single nucleus and junctions between cells called ____________________. Cardiac Muscle: Intercalated disks
___________is composed of spindle-shaped cells with a single nucleus. Cells are not under voluntary controll Smooth Muscles
What are the effects of aging on the muscular system Lean muscle mass decreases. The amount of loss is genetically determined. Fast twitch fibers are more affected than slow twitch fibers. Decreased muscle mass.
What is an EMG Electromyography - accesses the health of muscles by testing how a muscle responds to electric stimuli
What is a Hernia The protrusion of viscera through the muscle of the abdominal wall
What is a cramp Is a painful muscle spasm that may have many causes
What is Muscular Dystrophy A term used for a group of hereditary disorders that result in the progressive degeneration of muscle tissues.
What is a Sprain ligament tears
What is a muscle Strain Tear in a muscle from overuse or overstretching
What is Fibromyalgia Involves myalgia, fatigue and pain in soft tissues , tendons, and ligaments
What is Tindinitis a tendon inflammation resulting from injury, overuse or aging
What is atrophy? The decrease in muscle size due to a decrease in muscle tissue
What is Shin Splints Refer to pain along the anterior, lower leg commonly occurring after physical activity.
Created by: kphillips3