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GASTROENTEROLOGY

MED TERMS - CHAPTER 6

TermDefinition
adenoma benign tumor arising from glandular epithelium
anaplastic tumor tissue containing primitive undifferentiated cells unlike the structurally differentiated cells of normal tissue
anorexia loss of appetite
belching burping
borborygmi audible rumbling and gurgling sounds in the digestive tract
colic sharp crampy pains
colon part of the large intestine
constipation firm difficult stools
diarrhea abnormal frequency urgency and looseness of stools
diverticulum abnormal outpoutching of the colon
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
endorectal inside the rectum said of diagnostic or therapeutic instruments or procedures
enterocolitis inflammatory disease of both the small and large intestine
eructation belching burping
flatulence excessive intestinal gas
heartburn burning pain in the epigastrium or chest due to digestive disorders.
hematemesis vomiting blood
hematochezia passage of blood from the rectum
hemorrhoid anal varicose veins
hepatic referring to the liver
hyperplasia increase in the number of cells in tissue or organ
ileus intestinal obstruction
intussussception prolapse of one part of the intestine into another
jaundice discoloration of skin and sclerae by excessive bile pigment
lientery passage of undigested food in stools
melena black stools (often due to blood in stool)
obstipation total inability to pass stool
odynophagia pain on swallowing
palliative directed to the relief of symptoms rather than the elimination of their cause
postprandial following a meal
rebound tenderness additional stab of pain when pressure on abdomen is released often indicating peritoneal irritation
splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
steatorrhea excessive amount of fat in the feces
tenesmus straining of stool usually without result and often painful
transrectal diagnostic or surgical procedure that is performed through the rectum
volvulus intestinal obstruction due to twisting or obstruction of the bowel
flatus fart pass gas
flatulence gas in stomach
mastication chewing
cholelithiasis gallstones
piles hemorrhoids
heartburn gastroesophageal reflux
belching eructation
emesis vomiting
anastomosis surgical joining to two organs or vessels
appendectomy surgical excision of the vermiform appendix
barium enema an xray that uses barium given rectally to outline the colon and rectum
choleecystectomy removal of the gallbladder
colectomy excision of part or all of colon
colonoscopy procedure used to view the colon using a scope
colostomy surgical created opening from the colon, through which feces is passed may be temp, or perm.
endoscopy insertion of tube with a light source into body cavity to view stuctures
EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy endoscopic procedure to view esophagus, stomach, and duodenum
exploratory laparotomy inspection of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
gastrectomy excision of a portion or all of the stomach
gastroscopy endoscopic procedure to view the stomach
hemicolectomy surgical excision of approximately half the colon
herorrhoidectomy surgical excision of hemorrhoids
herniorrhaphy surgical repair of a hernia
imaging studies ultrasound studies, to access gallbladder masses
KUB x-ray plain x-ray to image the kidneys, bladder, and ureters
laparoscopy inspection of abdominal cavity through an endoscope
portacaval shunt surgical procedure allowing portal vein blood to bypass the liver and empty directly into the inferior vena cava
pyloroplasty incision of the pylorus and reconstruction of the pyloric channel to relieve pyloric obstruction
resection surgical removal
splenectomy surgical removal of the spleen
upper GI series with small-bowel follow-through an x-ray series that uses barium taken orally to outline the esophagus, stomach and small intestine
vagotomy interruption of the impulses carried by the vagus nerve
absorption tests based on determination of blood or stool levels
alkaline phosphatase enzyme whose level in the serum is often increased in bone disease and obstruction liver disease
ALT alamine aminotransferease
ammonia serum breakdown product of protein metabolism, increased in hepatic failure
annylase serum enzyme whose level is increased in pacreatitis and mumps
AST asparate aminotransferase
bilirubin, direct bilirubin that reacts directly with testing chemicals
bilirubin, indirect bilirubin that does not directly react with testing Delete repeated word
bilirubin, urinary bilirubin in the Delete repeated word
bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin that has been conjugated (broken down)
bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin that has not been conjugated
CEA carcinoembryonic Antigen not a reliable diagnostic indicator of colon cancer, but useful in watching recurrence.
CLO Campylobacter like organism
GPT glutamic pyruvic transaminase
O & P Examination of stool for parasite or their ova
LFT Liver function tests
Hemoccult test for occult blood in the stool
Created by: pheonix1