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NAU A&P 23 & 24

NAU A&P Pregnancy, Growth & Development; Genetics & Genomics

Is the presence of a developing offspring in the uterus consisting of 3 trimesters Pregnancy
Consists of 3 periods in a pregnancy which are divided into about 3 months each Trimesters
Is the union of an egg with a sperm Fertilization
A hollow ball of reproducing cells Blastocyst
When the blastocyst nestles into the endometrium occurring 1 to 7 days after fertilization of the ovum Implantation
Formed when a sperm cell and an egg unite Zygote
2 life phases: Prenatal and Postnatal Phases
Extends from fertilization to birth Prenatal Phase
Extends from birth to death Postnatal Phase
Survives only 12 to 24 hours following ovulation Secondary oocyte
Survives 24 to 72 hours in the female reproductive tract Sperm cell
The three periods of the prenatal period: Period of cleavage, Embryonic stage and Fetal stage
Is the pinching of the Zygote's cytoplasm Period of cleavage
Begins second week through the eighth week of prenatal development Embryonic stage
Begins at the end of the eighth week of prenatal development and lasts until birth Fetal stage
What happens during the Embryonic Stage: Blastocyst completes implantation, amniotic cavity forms then the Embryonic disc forms
What happens during the Fetal Stage: Body grows rapidly-Ossification occurs in most bones-External Reproductive Organs form-Has hair,nipples&nails-Skeletal Muscles contract-Skin smooths out-Fat is deposited-Braincells rapidly form networks& grow-Testes descend-Digestive & Respiratory mature
A space forms between the inner cell mass and the outer trophoblast cells Amniotic Cavity
Inner cell mass flatten forming this which then eventually forms 3 layers itself Embryonic Disc
Cells that form the wall of the blastocyst Trophoblast
Hormonal changes during pregnancy, steps 1 & 2: 1. Following implantation, trophoblast cells begins to secrete hCG 2. hCG functions to maintain corpus luteum during early stages of pregnancy so it can continue to secrete estrogen & progesterone to keep the body from rejecting the blastocyst.
Hormonal changes during pregnancy, steps 3, 4 & 5: 3. Placenta develops, which secretes estrogen & progesterone 4. Placental estrogen and progesterone start to function 5. Relaxin from the corpus luteum inhibits uterine contractions & relaxes pelvic ligaments for expansion
Hormonal changes during pregnancy, steps 6 & 7: 6. Placenta secretes placental lactogen that stimulates breast development 7. Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex promotes resorption of sodium leading to fluid retention for amniotic fluid
Hormonal changes during pregnancy, step 8: 8. Parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands that helps maintain a high concentration of maternal blood calcium
Maintains uterine lining and what is tested for in urine pregnancy test hCG or Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
Functions of placental estrogen and progesterone: Stimulate uterine lining to develop-Maintain uterine lining-Inhibit secretion of FSH & LH- Stimulate development of mammary glands-Progesterone inhibits uterine contractions-Estrogen enlarges reproductive organs
3 layers formed by the Embryonic disc consisting of the Ectoderm, Mesoderm and Endoderm Primary Germ Layer
Name the primary germ layers outermost from the endometrial lining inward: Ectoderm, Mesoderm and Endoderm
Outer layer, giving rise to nervous system, portions of special sensory organs ( such as hair and eyes), epidermis and its accessories, lining of the mouth & anal canal surfaces. Ectoderm
Middle layer, forms all types of muscle tissue, bone tissue, bone marrow, blood, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, internal reproductive organs, kidneys & mesothelium of the body cavities. Mesoderm
Inner layer, produces the epithelial linings of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary bladder and urethra. Endoderm
All layers of the primary germ layers retain stem cells , a few which persist into adulthood except for Central Nervous System Stem cells
Fetal Blood & Circulation. Steps 1-3: 1.Umbilical vein carries oxygen rich blood from the placenta to the fetus 2.Umbilical vein enters fetus through umbilical rings & travels to liver 3. Half of blood travels along the anterior abdominal wall to liver and half travels to the Ductus Venosus
Fetal Blood & Circulation. Steps 4-5: 4.Ductus Venosus joins the Inferior Vena Cava 5. Oxygenated blood in the ductus venosus then mixes with deoxygenated blood from the inferior aspect of the fetus & the mixture enters the right atrium
Fetal Blood & Circulation. Steps 6-7: 6. From right atrium, majority of blood is passed into the left atrium through the foramen ovale, since lungs are non-functional 7. Backflow through foramen ovale prevented by combination of superior pressure in the right atrium vs left atrium & the flap
Fetal Blood & Circulation. Steps 8-9: 8.More highly oxygenated blood is moved into the left ventricle & is pumped into aorta where it can be supply brain tissues & myocardium before it descends into body 9.Remaining blood from right atrium flows to right ventricle & out via pulmonary trunk
Fetal Blood & Circulation. Steps 10-11: 10. Most of blood in pulmonary trunk bypasses lungs & enters ductus arteriosus 11. Ductus Arteriosus connects the pulmonary trunk to the descending portion of the aortic arch carrying less oxygenated blood to the lower regions of the body
Fetal Blood & Circulation. Step 12: 12. Once the blood reaches the internal iliac, it branches off into the umbilical arteries leading back to the placenta where the blood is reoxygenated.
Bypass of the liver: Ductus Venosus
Flap dividing the right and left atrium Septum Primum
Shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch Ductus Arteriosus
Cardiovascular Adjustments in the Newborn, Steps 1 & 2: 1. Umbilical vein constricts forming ligamentum teres extending form the umbilicus to the liver inside the newborn 2. Ductus Venosus constricts forming ligamentum venosum that is superficially embedded in the wall of the liver
Cardiovascular Adjustments in the Newborn, Steps 3, 4 & 5: 3. Foramen Ovale closes & begins fossa ovalis 4. Ductus Arteriosus constricts forming ligamentum arteriosum extending from pulmonary trunk to the aorta 5. Umbilical arteries distal portions constrict & become lateral umbilical ligaments
When the foramen ovale does not close all the way, usually closes up within a few days of birth, if not will have surgery to close: Hole in the heart
Valve does not close all the way allowing the mixing of oxygenated & deoxygenated blood Heart Murmur
Stages of Developments of a Human life: 1. Neonatal period 2. Infancy 3. Childhood 4. Adolescence 5. Adulthood 6. Senescence
Birth to the end of the fourth week- Begins to carry on respiration, obtain & digest nutrients, regulates body temperature, excretes waste & makes cardiovascular adjustments Neonatal period
End of fourth week to one year. High growth rate, eruption of teeth, muscular & nervous system maturation, communication begins Infancy
One year to puberty. High growth rate, permanent teeth erupt, muscular control at a higher level is achieved, bladder & bowel controls are established, intellectual abilities mature Childhood
Puberty into Adulthood. Person becomes reproductively functional, more emotionally mature, some growth spurts, fine motor skills develop, increased intellectual abilities Adolescence
Adolescence to old age. Degenerative changes begin to occur. Starts about age 40 to 50 Adulthood
Old age to death. Degenerative changes continue and accelerate. Senescence
A 19th century monk, known as the Father of modern genetics through fruit flies and pea plants Gregor Johann Mendel
Units contained within each DNA molecule that represent units of inheritance. Genes
The complete set of genetic instructions in a human cell Genome
Is looking at the human body in terms of multiple, interacting genes Genomics
Modes of Inheritance are: Pairing of chromosomes, Dominant & Recessive Inheritance, Different dominance relationships
The matching up of genes and chromosomes Pairing of chromosomes
Consists of dominant & recessive genes: Dominant & Recessive Inheritance
Consists of Incomplete dominance and Codominance relationships Different dominance relationships
These come in pairs Genes and chromosomes
Chromosome charts or mapping of chromosomes Karotypes
Chromosomes 1-22 are numbered in decreasing size order Autosomes
X and Y chromosomes which determine the sex of an individual Sex chromosomes
An alternate form of a gene Allele
Pairing up of identical alleles for a gene Homozygous
Pairing up of different alleles for a gene Heterozygous
The physical appearance of a trait. Ex: determines if you are blonde, red headed, brown eyed, blue eyed and so on Phenotype
Is the genetic make up of an individual which may or may not be expressed in an individuals physical appearance. An alternation later expressed Genotype
An allele that produces an uncommon phenotype or an alteration in the gene Mutant
Is an allele that masks the expression of another allele so that only it is physically observed, usually indicated by a capital letter. Dominant Gene
Is an allele whose expression is masked by another allele so that it is not physically observed unless only recessive alleles are present, usually indicated by a small letter. Recessive Gene
Is a diagram that depicts family relationships and known genotypes and phenotypes. Someone's lineage. Pedigree
Results in the physical appearance of a trait only part of the time. Is expressed in a child only when both parents carry the mutated gene Ex: Tay-Sach's disease Incomplete Dominance
A fatal genetic lipid disorder which leads to deterioration of mental and physical abilities. Tay-Sach's disease
Results in the physical appearance of both different alleles. Ex: blood typing which expresses all available antigens on the red blood cell's surface. Codominance
Different degrees of the phenotype in different individuals Gene Expression
Types of Gene Expression: Completely Penetrant, Incompletely Penetrant, Variably Penetrant
Everyone who inherits a particular genotype has some expression of symptoms shown as a percentage. Ex: Certain races have certain physical attributes Completely Penetrant
Some individuals that have a particular genotype do not express the associated phenotype. Ex: all siblings but one is tall. Incompletely Penetrant
Symptoms vary in intensity in different people shown as a range of expression. Ex: Family all has red hair in various shades Variably Penetrant
Traits that are molded by one or more genes plus the environment Multifactorial Traits
Traits determined by more than one gene. Ex: height, skin color Polygenic traits
In males the sex chromosomes are different XY Heterogemetic
In females the sex chromosomes are the same XX Homogemetic
Certain genes are inherited in a pattern related to the sex of the individual and are therefore called linked. Ex: X-linked in females and Y-linked in males Gender effects on Phenotype
Ways to map how the alleles can line up by layout by dominant and recessive genes Punnett Square
Affects structures or functions of the body that is present only in males or females. Ex: A man can have a beard and a woman cannot Sex-limited traits
An allele is dominant in one sex, but recessive in the other. Ex: baldness Sex-influenced inheritance
Chromosome disorders: Polyploidy and Aneuploidy
An entire extra set of chromosomes, normally non-viable. Polyploidy
Cells missing a chromosome or having an extra chromosome due to nondisjunction Aneuploidy
Nonseparation of the chromosomes pairs resulting in a zygote, fertilized egg with 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46. Nondisjunction
A normal amount of chromosomes Euploid
Often results in mental retardation Autosomal Aneuploidy
The condition of having one extra chromosome. Ex: Down's syndrome Trisomy
The condition of missing one chromosome Monosomy
Results from missing one X chromosome in a girl Turner Syndrome
Results from having an extra X chromosome in a boy Klinefelter syndrome
The process of birth Parturition
Created by: FKrouse



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