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A & P for estetician

anatomy and physiology of face, neck, and shoulders

Anatomy study of the body structure and its makeup
Physiology study of the body structure functions and activities
Histiology study of the science of organic tissue makeup
Cells the basic unit of all living cells
Protoplasm a colorless jellylike substance containing food elements
Nucleus dense protoplasm at the center of the cell that acts in cell reproduction and metabolism
Cytoplasm all the protoplasm of a cell beyond the nucleus that contains food material for cell growth, reproduction, and self-repair
Cell Membrane encloses the protoplasm and is a selective barrier
Mitosis division of a parent somatic cell into two identical daughter cells
Metabolism chemical process in living organisms to nourish cells and carry out their activities
Anabolism constructive metabolism, building larger from smaller
Catabolism decomposing metabolism, breaking larger into smaller
Tissue collection of similar cells that perform a particular function
Water in Body Tissues 60 to 90 percent
Connective Tissue Function supports, protects, and binds together other tissues of the body
Epithelial Tissue Function protective covering on body surfaces
Liquid Tissue Function carries food, waste products, and hormones through the body
Muscular Tissue Function contracts and moves the various parts of the body
Nerve Tissue Function carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions
Connective Tissue Example bone
Epithelial Tissue Example skin
Liquid Tissue Example lymph
Muscular Tissue Example muscle
Nerve Tissue Example spinal cord
Organs groups of tissues designed to perform a specific function
Brain controls the body
Eyes control vision
Heart circulates the blood
Kidneys excrete water and waste products
Lungs supply oxygen to the blood
Liver removes toxic products of digestion
Skin forms external protective covering of the body
Stomach and Intestines digest food
Systems groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions
Ten Major Body Systems MURDERSINC; U=E
Skeletal System 206 bones connected by movable and immmovable joints, made of connective tissue: 1/3 animal matter and 2/3 mineral matter
Skeletal System Function give shape and support the body
Skeletal System Function protect various internal structures and organs
Skeletal System Function serve as attachments for mms and act as levers to produce body movement
Skeletal System Function help produce both WBC and RBCs
Skeletal System Function store most of the body's calcium supply, and phosphorus, magnesium, and sodium
Joint movable or immovable connection between two or more skeletal bones
Skull made up of the cranium and the facial skeleton
Cranium 8 bone protection of the brain; TOPFES
Occipital Bone skull above the nape
Parietal Bones (2) form the sides and crown of the cranium
Frontal Bone forehead
Temporal Bones (2) form the sides of the head in the ear region
Ethmoid Bone between eye sockets
Sphenoid Bone joins all the cranial bones
Facial Bones 14 bones of the face
Nasal Bones (2) nose bridge
Lacrimal Bones (2) make up eye sockets
Zygomatic (Malar) Bones (2) cheekbones
Maxillae (2) upper jaw bones
Mandible lower jawbone; largest and strongest facial bone
Vomer part of nasal septum
Palatine Bones (2) mouth palate
Inferior Concha side walls of nasal cavity
Hyoid Bone Main neckbone; U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles
"Adam's apple" U-shaped bone
Cervical Vertebrae Main neckbones; seven vertebral bones in the neck
Thorax elastic, bony cage made up of the sternum, spine, 12 pairs of ribs, and connective cartilage protecting the heart, lungs, and other internal organs
Sternum breastbone
Clavicle collarbone
Scapula shoulder blade
Shoulder Bones clavicle, scapula, and head of humerus
Humerus uppermost and largest arm bone; shoulder to elbow
Ulna inner and larger forearm bone; elbow to wrist on pinkie finger side
Radius outer and smaller forearm bone; elbow to wrist on thumb side
Carpus 8 small, irregular wrist bones connected by ligaments
Metacarpus 5 long, slender palm bones
Phalanges 14 finger bones; 3 per finger and 2 per thumb
Muscular System Function covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue and contracts and moves various parts of the body
Muscular System over 640 mms make up about 40 percent of the body's weight
Muscles fibrous tissues that can stretch and contract to meet the demands of the body's movements
Striated Mms skeletal or voluntary mms attached to bones
Nonstriated Mms involuntary, visceral, or smooth mms found in internal organs
Cardiac Mms involuntary mm makes up the heart (and nothing else)
Origin (of a mm) part of mm that doesn't move (attached to skeleton)
Insertion (of a mm) part of mm at more movable skeleton attachment
Belly (of a mm) middle part of mm
Pressure in Massage usually directed insertion to origin
Massage hand or electric vibrator stimulates muscle tissue
Electrical Current high frequency or faradic current stimulates muscle tissue
Light Rays infrared rays or UV rays stimulate muscle tissue
Heat Rays heating lamps or heating caps stimulate muscle tissue
Moist Heat steamers or moderately warm steam towels stimulates muscle tissue
Nerve Impulses through the nervous system stimulate muscle tissue
Chemicals certain acids and salts stimulate muscle tissue
Scalp Mms Epicranius or occipito-frontalis
Epicranius covers top of skull in two parts, occipitalis and frontalis, connected by an aponeurosis
Occipitalis Location back of epicranius
Occipitalis Action draws scalp backward
Frontalis Location front of epicranius
Frontalis Action raises eyebrows, draws scalp forward, and wrinkles forehead
Aponeurosis tendon
Ear Mms auricularis superior, anterior, and posterior
Auricularis Superior Location above ear
Auricularis Superior Action draws ear upward
Auricularis Anterior Location in front of ear
Auricularis Anterior Action draws ear forward
Auricularis Posterior Location behind ear
Auricularis Posterior Action draws ear backward
Masseter and Temporalis chewing muscles
Platysma Location from chest and shoulder mms to side of chin
Platysma Action lowers lower jaw and lip
Sternocleidomastoideus Action lowers and rotates head
Corrugator Location beneath frontalis and orbicularis oculi
Corrugator Action draws eyebrow down and wrinkles forehead vertically
Orbicularis Oculi Location rings around eye socket
Orbicularis Oculi Action closes the eyes
Procerus Location bridge of nose
Procerus Action lowers eyebrows and causes wrinkles across bridge of nose
Buccinator Location cheek between upper and lower jaw
Buccinator Action compresses cheeks and expels air between lips
Depressor Labii Inferioris Location surrounds lower lip
Depressor Labii Inferioris Action depresses lower lip and draws it to one side
Levator Anguli Oris Action raises angle of mouth and draws it forward
Levator Labii Superioris Location surrounds upper lip
Levator Labii Superioris Action elevates upper lip and dilates nostrils, as in showing distaste
Mentalis Action elevates lower lip snd raises and wrinkles chin
Orbicularis Oris Location surrounds upper and lower lips
Orbicularis Oris Action compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkles lips
Risorius Action draws corner of mouth out and back, as in grinning
Triangularis Location alongside the chin
Triangularis Action pulls down corner of mouth
Zygomaticus Major and Minor Location from zygomatic bone to angle of mouth
Zygomaticus Major and Minor Action elevate lip, as in laughing
Nervous System Function coordinates activities performed inside and outside body
Principal Components of Nervous System brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Main Subdivisions of Nervous System central (cerebrospinal), peripheral, and autonomic
CNS or Cerebrospinal consists of brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves + controls voluntary functions
PNS carries impulses to and from CNS
ANS controls involuntary actions of smooth mms, glands, blood vessels, and heart
Brain largest and most complex nerve tissue in body
Number of Cranial Nerves 12 pairs
Spinal Cord from brain to lower extremity of trunk, protected by spinal column
Number of Spinal Nerves 31 pairs distributed to mms and skin of trunk and limbs
Nervous System Composition fine fibers called nerves and nerve cells called neurons
Afferent nerves carry messages from sense organs to brain + also called sensory
Sensory nerves carry messages from sense organs to brain + also called afferent
Efferent nerves carry messages from brain to mms + also called motor
Motor nerves carry messages from brain to mms + also called efferent
5th cranial nerve largest cranial nerve
5th cranial nerve aka trifacial or trigeminal
5th cranial nerve is the chief sensory nerve of the face
5th cranial nerve serves as the motor nerve of chewing mms
7th cranial nerve is the chief motor nerve of the face
7th cranial nerve supplies and controls facial expression mms
11th cranial nerve affects mms of neck and back
Cervical nerves cervical cutaneous, greater auricular, greater occipital, lesser occipital
Circulatory system controls steady circulation of blood through body via heart and blood vessels
Lymph vascular system division of circulatory system that carries waste and impurities away from the cells
Lymph vascular system function carry nourishment from blood to body cells, defend against invading bacteria and toxins, remove waste from body cells to blood, and provide fluid environment for cells
common carotid arteries main source of blood supply to head, face, and neck
internal carotid artery supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose, and internal ear
external carotid artery supplies blood to anterior scalp. ear, face, neck, and side of head
jugular veins blood from head, face and neck flow to heart through these on either side of the neck
endocrine ductless and hormones
exocrine ducts and secrete substances to purify body by eliminating waste
digestive change food into nutrients and waste
digestion takes 9 hours to complete
Created by: selfstudy08