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Anatomy exam II Heart Development and Defects

When there is an infection in the pleura and they start to adhear to each other, that is called ____ pleurasy
The _____ develops into the SVC, IVC, and coronary sinus (cardiac loop) sinus venosus
The _____ develops into the right and left atria (cardiac loop) artial portion
The _____ will form most of the adult left ventricle (cardiac loop) ventricle
The _____ part forms the trabeculated part of the right ventricle (bulbus cordis) proximal
The middle part _______ forms the outflow tracts for the ventricles (bulbus cordis) conus cordis
The distal part ______ forms the roots of the aorta and pulmonary artery (bulbus cordis) truncus arteriosus
If the heart tube loops to the left instead of the right, then the heart is located on the right side of the thorax instead of the left, a condition known as _____ dextracardia
Dextrocardia may coincide with ______, a complete reversal of asymmetry in all organs situs inversus
Situs inversus occurs in 1 in ______ individuals 7,000
Formation of the _____ of the adult heart involves the fusion of two crescent-shaped septa interatrial septum
At the end of the fourth week, the ______ begins to grow from the atrial roof septum primum
The septum primum has a temporary opening (______) that eventually closes ostium primum
The upper part of the septum primum degenerates to form the ______ which maintains blood flow from the ____ side to the ____ side of the primitive atrium ostium secundum; right; left
The ______ develops to the right of the septum primum but remains incomplete septum secundum
The ostium secundum becomes known as the ______ at this point foramen ovale (oval formen)
After the upper part of the septum primum degenerates, the lower part forms the _______, which remains unfused until after birth valve of the foramen ovale
What can artial septal defects (ASDs) be caused by? excessive resorption of the septum primum; inadequate development of the septum secundum
What can be the result of ASDs? a significant left-to-right shunting of blood due to higher pressures on the left side after birth
Occur in 6.4 of 10,000 births with a 2:1 prevalence in ____ to ____ infants females to males
An atrial septal defect may also result from complete absence of the atrial septum, which results in a ______ common atrium
The _______ is the junction between the common atrium and common ventricle atrioventricular canal
Initially, the artioventricular canal only provides access to the primitive ____ ventricle, but by the fifth week, the canal has enlarged to provide access to the primitive _____ ventricle as well left; right
The atrioventricular canal has two outgrowths, ___________, that extend from its superior and inferior borders endocardial cushions
The cushions fuse and divide the original canal into separate right and left atrioventricular orifices (canals) by the end of the ____ week 5th
The septum of the conus cordis and truncus arteriosus is formed by _______ that spiral 180° as they grow toward and fuse with each other conotruncal cushions
The conotruncal cushions fuse to form the ________, which separates the ascending _____ and ______ trunk aorticopulmonary (conotruncal) septum; aorta; pulmonary
The inferior part of the _____ fuses with an outgrowth from the inferior endocardial cushion aorticopulmonary septum
The aorticopulmonary septum and the inferior endocardial cushion fuse together to form _____ membranous part of the interventricular septum
The membranous part fuses with a muscular ridge, __________, to form the ventricular septum, which divides the primitive ventricle into separate right and left ventricles muscula interventricular septum
Most common form of VSDs involves malformation of the _______ membranous part of the interventricular septum
Where might VSDs be found? May be found as an isolated lesion or may be associated with abnormalities in partitioning of the conotruncal region
The most frequently occurring abnormality of the conotruncal region is _____ Tetralogy of Fallot
What does Tetralogy of Fallot results from? anterior displacement of the conotruncal septum
What are the malformations of the Tetralogy of Fallot? (4) 1. a ventricular septal defect 2. pulmonary stenosis 3. overriding aorta 4. right ventricular hypertrophy
______ results in a right-to-left shunting of blood with cyanosis near the time of birth due to poorly oxygenated blood entering the arterial circulation Tetralogy of Fallot
The right ventricular hypertrophy in Tetralogy of Fallot results in a characteristic ______ on X-rays boot-shaped heart
Failure of the aorticopulmonary septum to spiral as it descends may result in _____ transposition of the great arteries
If the aorticopulmonary septum fails to spiral, the aorta originates from the _____ ventricle, and the pulmonary artery originates from the ____ ventricle right; left
Blood returns to the fetus from the placenta by way of the _____ (___ saturated with O2). umbilical vein; 80%
Most of the fetus blood bypasses the liver by way of the _____ and flows directly into the IVC superior to the _____ ductus venosus; liver
In the IVC, placental blood mixes with _____ blood from the lower limbs before entering the ____ atrium deoxygenated; right
In the right atrium, most of the blood from the IVC passes through the ______ and goes directly to the _____ atrium foramen ovale; left
A small portion of the blood from the IVC mixes with ______ blood from the SVC in the ____ atrium and enters the ______ ventricle deoxygenated; right; right
In the left atrium, blood from the right atrium mixes with a small amount of ______ blood from the lungs before entering the ____ ventricle deoxygenated; left
Blood from the _____ ventricle leaves through the pulmonary trunk, but instead of heading to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries, the majority of it flows into the arch of the aorta via the _______ right; ductus arteriosus
After coursing through the descending aorta, blood flows to the placenta by way of the two _______ (____ saturated with O2) umbilical arteries; 58%
Upon an infant’s first breath, lung capillaries are filled with blood, and _____ blood returning from the lungs fills the ____ atrium oxygenated; left
Blood pressure in the _____ atrium falls below that in the left due to a baby's first breath. This pressure differential holds the valve of the foramen ovale _____ right; shut
In most people, the valve will fuse to the septum secundum and form the _______. However, complete fusion is not achieved in ~20% of individuals (_______) fossa ovalis; probe patency
The ductus arteriosus closes and becomes the _______ ligamentum arteriosum
The umbilical arteries close and form the _____ and the _____ medial umbilical ligaments and superior vesical arteries
The umbilical vein closes and forms the ______ ligamentum teres hepatis(round ligament of the liver)
The ductus venosus closes and forms the _____ ligamentum venosum
Created by: luckynikki