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A&P Bones of Body

"Language of Med" Ch. 15 LTI-MA:509

Joints are? The places where bones come together. Used for flexability of movement
Sesamoid Bones Small,rounded bones resembling a sesame seed. Found near joints and they increase the efficency of of muscles near a particular joint.
Diaphysis The shaft, or middle region of a long bone.
Epiphysis The end of a long bone.
Epiphyseal line or plate Represents an area of cartilage tissue that is constantly being replaced by new bone tisue as the bone grows. Also known as the growth plate.
Metaphysis The flared portion of the bone. It lies between the epiphysis and the diaphysis.
Periosteum Strong, fibrous,vascular membrane that covers the surface of long bones except for the end of the epiphyses
Articular Cartilage The end of a long bone and the surface of any bone that meets another bone to form a joint, they are covered with this.
Compact (cortical) bone. a layer of hard,dense bone that lies under hte periosteum in all bones and lies chiefly around the diaphysis of long bones.
haversian canals small canals containing blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the bone and remove waste products such as carbon dioxide
Medulllary Cavity the hollowed out central shaft of a long bonethat contains yellow bone marrow
Cancellous Bone also known as spongy or tabecular bone it is porous and very dense
Bone Processes enlarged areas taht extend out from bones to serve as attachments for muscles and tendons
Bone Head rounded end of a bone separated from the body of the bone by a neck; usually covered by articular cartilage
Greater Trochanter large process on the femer for attachment of tendons and muscle
Lesser Trochanter is a small process
Tubercle rounded process on many bones for attachment of tendons and muscles
Condyle round, knuckle like process at the joint; usually covered by articular cartilage
Fossa shallow cavity in or on a bone
Foramen opening for blood vessels and nerves
Fissure narrow, deep, slit-like opening
Sinus hollow cavity within a bone
Sutures joints of the cranial bones
frontal bones forms the forehead and the roof of the bony sockets that contain the eyes
parietal bone the 2 bones on each side of the skull that form the roof and upper part of the sides of the cranium
temporal bone the 2 bones that form the lower sides and base of hte cranium
mastoid process the round proces of the temporal bone behind the ear
styloid process projects downward from the temporal bone
occipital bone forms the back and the base of the skull and joins the parietal and temporal bones
foramen magnum opening in which spinal cord passes
sphenoid bone the bat-shaped bone that extends behind the eyes and forms part of the base of the skull
ethmoid bone the thin, delicate bone that supports the nasal cavity and forms part of the orbits of the eyes
nasal bones the 2 slender bones that support the bridge of the nose
lacrimal bones the 2 small, thin bones located at the corner of each eye
maxillary bones the 2 large bones that compse the massive upper jawbones
cleft palate if the two maxillary bones do not come together before birth
mandibular bone the lower jawbone
alveoli socket where teeth are embedded
zygomatic bones 2 bones, one on each side of the face that form the high portion of the cheek
vomer the thin, single, flat bone that forms the lower portion of the nasal septum
sinuses air cavities located in the cranial and facial bones
intervertebral disk pads of cartilage that seperate bone
cervical vertebrae C1-C7
thoracic vertebrae T1-T12
Lumbar vertebrae L1-L5
sacral vertebrae triangular shaped bone
cocyx tailbone
vertebral body inner thick round anterior portion of the vertebrae
intervertebral disk a pad of cartilage that provides flaxability and prevents shock to the vertebral column
spinous process posterior portion of the vertebra
transverse process a spinous process that protrudes behind the pubis bone
neural canal space between the vertebral body and the vertebral arch through which the spinal cord passes
lamina part of the vertabral arch
clavicle collar bone
scapula shoulder blade
sternum breastbone
ribs 12 pairs of these, first 7 join the sternum
xiphoid process the lower portion of the sternum
manubrium the upper portion of the sternum
humerus upper arm bone
ulna medial lower arm bone
olecranon elbow bone
radious lateral lower arm bone (lines with thumb)
carpals wrist bone
metacarpals the five radiating bones of the fingers
phalanges finger bones
pelvic girdle pelvis
ilium upper part of the pubic girdle
ischium outer part of the pubic girdle
femur thigh bone
acetabulum hip socket
patella kneecap
tibia large bone of the lower leg
fibula smaller bone of the lower leg
tarsals bones of the hind part of the foot
calcaneus heel bone
metatarsals bones of the midfoot
phalanges of the toes bones of the forefoot
ewing sarcoma malignant bone tumor
exostosis bony growth arising from the surface of the bone
fracture traumatic breaking of bone
colles fracture fracture that occurs near the wrist joint at the lower end of the radious
crepitus crackling sound produced by bones rubbing each other or against roughend cartilage
osteogenic sarcoma malignant tumor arising from bone
osteomalacia softening of bone, with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in the bone
osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection
osteoporosis decrease in bone density/thining or weakening of bone
talipes congenital abnormality of the hindfoot
bunion swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint
closed fracture bone is broken but no open wound
open fracture bone is broken and a fragment of bone protrudes through an open wound in the skin
pathologic fracture disease of the bone such as a tumor or infection making it weak
comminuted fracture bone is splintered or crushed into several pieces
compression fracture bone is compressed; often occurs in the vertebrae
greenstick fracture bone is partially broken; it breaks on one surface and only bends on the other
impacated fracture one fragment is driven firmly into the other
reduction restoration of the bone to its normal position
ORIF open reduction/internal fixation
mestatic bone lesions malignant tumors from other parts of the body that metastasize to bones
rickets a softening of bones in children potentially leading to fractures and deformity
Created by: nhess0810



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