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Anatomy

Anatomy exam II Thorax

QuestionAnswer
The _____ is the superior part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen thorax
The thorax consists of the ________ and the surrounding ___________. thoracic cavity; thoracic wall
The thoracic cavity contins the ______ and the _____, which are separated by a medican mass of tissue, the _________ lungs; pleurae; mediastinum
The thoracic wall contains the __________ muscles, blood vessels, and nerves thoracic skeleton
The thoracic cavity consists of: right and left _______, each surroundsing a ____ pleural cavities; lung
The thoracic cavity consits of: a central mass of tissue, the _____, that separates the R and L plural cavity and the lung mediastinum
The thoracic skeleton constists of: _____, _____, ______ the sternum; 12 pairs of ribs and costal cartilage; 12 thoracic vertebrae
The sternum has 3 parts: _____, _____, ______. manubrium; body of sternum; and xiphoid process
The manubrium has a ________ that articulates with the clavicle and the 1st costal cartilages superior jugular notch
What is the articulation between the manubrium and the body of the sternum? What does it form? manubriosternal joint; sternal angle
What is the sternal angle also known as? Angle of Louis
What does the sternal angle indicate? (4) 1. the level of the intervertebral disc between T4/T5 2. marks the superior level of the pericardium 3. shows the level of the beginning and end of the aortic arch 4. where the trachea bifurcates into the R and L main bronchi
What does the xipoid process indicate? (3) 1. level of the superior border of the liver 2. inferior border of the heart 3. central tendon of the diaphragm
Where is the xiphisternal joint? T9
The ribs terminate ________ in the costal cartilage anteriorly
Each rib consists of a _____, _____, _____, _____. head, neck, tubercle and shaft
The head of a typical rib is wedge-shaped and has two facets separated by _______ crest of the head
The shaft has a costal groove on the _______ inferior margin of its internal surface
The _____ and _____ lie in the costal groove and are protected by ______ intercostal vein and artery; bone
The __________ of the costal groove is not typically protected by bone and isn't really part of the groove intercostal nerve
______ have costal cartilage that articulate directly with the sternum (ribs _____) true ribs (1-7)
______ have costal cartilage that do not articulate wit hthe sternum (ribs ____) false ribe (8-12)
The costal cartilages of ribs _______ articulate with the costal cartilages of the ribs above 8-10
Floating ribs (_____) have no _____ connection with other ribs or the ______ 11-12; anterior; sternum
Which rib is the broadest and the shortest? It articulates with ____ and a ______. rib 1; T1 and scalene tubercle
Which rib has 2 articular facets on its head? rib 2
The _______ is located on rib 2's superior surface tubercle for the serratus anterior
Ribs ___ and rib ____ have one facet on their heads and articulate with a single vertebrae 10-12; 1
Which ribs have no neck or tubercle? ribs 11 and 12
_____ ribs are presenti n appoximately 1% of the population cervical ribs
If a person has cervial ribs, what problems can be caused from this? comression of the brachial plexis, subclavian vein or artery
The bodies of ribs articulate with their costal cartilages at _______ known as ______ joints. fibrocartilginous joints; costochondral joints
The costal cartilages of the 7 true ribs articulate with the sternum at _______ sternocostal joints
The joint of rib 1 is known as the ________ synchondrosis of the 1st rib
The joint of ribs 2-7 are known as _______ synovial joints
The costal cartilages of ribs 7-10 articulate with the cartilage above at synovial joints known as _______ interchondral joints.
_______ is an inflammation of the costochondral or sternocostal joints that causes localized pain and tenderness costochondritis
_____ is a common cause of chest pain in children and adolescents. costochondritis
A typical thoracic vertebra has two _______ on each side of the vertebral body for articulation with heads of ribs and _________ on the transverse processes for articulation with tubercles of ribs demifacets; transverse costal facets
The head of a typical rib articulates with the _______ of the _____-numbered vertebra and the _________ of the vertebra above it to form a joint of head of rib superior demifacet; same; inferior demifacet
The tubercle of the rib articulates with the______ of the ____-numbered vertebra to form a ______ joint transverse process; same; costotransverse
______ has a complete superior costal fact instead of a demifacet T1
_____ have a single complete costal facet for articulation with the same-numbered rib T10-12
_____ lack transverse costal facets on their transverse processes T11-12
Ribs and their costal cartilages are separated by _____ intercostal spaces
How are the intercostal spaces numbered? according to the superior rib bordering the space
What lyes in the intercostal space? (4) 1. intercostal muscles 2. nerves 3. arteries 4. veins
The _____ run inferoanteriorly from the rib above to the rib below external intercostal muscles
Where are the external intercostal muscles replaced by the external intercostal membrane? from the costochondral junction to the sternum
The _____ run inferoposteriorly from the rib above to the rib below internal intercostal muscles
Where are the internal intercostal muscles replaced by the internal intercostal membrane? posterior and medial to the angles of the ribs
The _____ are similar to the internal intercostals and are essentially their deeper parts. innermost intercostal muscles
Anteriorly, the innermost intercostal layer is represented by the _____ which passes from the _____ aspect of the lower sternum upward to costal cartilages (_____) transversus thoracis; posterior; 2 or 3-6
Laterally, the innermost intercostal layer occurs as the _____ innermost intercostal proper
Posteriorly, the innermost intercostal layer is represented by ______ which span _____ intercostal spaces in the ____ thoracic wall subcostal muscles; 2-3; lower
The _____ rami of nerves T1-T11 form the _________ that run through the intercostal space anterior (ventral); intercostal nerves
The _____ rami of nerve T12 is know as ______ anterior; subcostal nerve
The intercostal nerves innervate the intercostal muscles and give off ____ and ______ cutaneous branches lateral and anterior
Small ______ of the intercostal nerves can be found in the intercostal space along the ______ border of the lower rib collateral branches; superior
What are the main arteries of the thoracic wall? thoracic aorta; subclavian artery; axillary artery
The thoracic aorta runs through the _____ and _____ posterior intercostal and subcostal arteries
The subclavian artery runs through the _____ and _____ anterior internal thoracic and supreme intercostal arteries
The axillary artery runs through the ____ and _____ superior and lateral thoracic arteries
The posterior intercostal arteries of intercostal spaces 1 and 2 arise from the _____ supreme (superior) intercostal artery
The posterior intercostal arteries of intercostal spaces 3-11 arise _____ posteriorly from the thoracic aorta
The posterior intercostal arteries give rise to branches that accompany the ______ and the _____ posterior rami and the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves
The anterior intercostal arteries of the intercostal spaces 1-6 arise from the _____ internal thoracic arteries
The anterior intercostal arteries of spaces 7-9 arise from the _____ musculophrenic arteries
Intercostal spaces 10-11 do not have ____ anterior intercostal arteries
The anterior and posterior intercostal arteries have _____ and ____ branches that anastomose with each other terminal and collateral
The _____ arteries arise in the root of the neck from the inferior surfaces of the ____ arteries internal thoracic; subclavian
The internal thoracic arteries descend on the _____ surface of the thorax ______ to to the sternum and ______ to the clavicle and upper 6 costal cartilages internal; lateral; posterior
Where do the internal thoracic arteries terminate? in the 6th intercostal space
The internal thoracic arteries separate into the ______ and ______ arteries superior epigastric and musculophrenic
Where do the intercostal veins lie in the coastal grooves? most superior to the arteries and nerves
Most postior intercostal veins drain into the _______ azygos system of veins
The anterior intercostal veins drain into the _______ internal thoracic veins
The internal thoracic veins accompany the _____ internal thoracic arteries
The ______ provides communication between the thorax and the neck superior thoracic aperture
The ______ is the border between the thorax and abdomen inferior thoracic aperture
Inferior thoracic aperture is also know as _____ the anatomical thoracic outlet
What is thoracic outlet syndrome? obstructions of the structures that exit the superior thoracic aperture
What 2 important structures are located in the superior thoracic aperture? apex of the lung; cervical pleura (cuploa)
The mammary gland consists of _____ lobules of grandular tissue 15-20
How is each lobule in the breast drained? by a lactiferous duct which opens independently on the nipple
What is the dialated portion of the lactiferous duct? lactiferous sinus
What helps support hte mammary gland lobules? suspensory ligaments
Approximately ____% of the lymphatic drainage of the breast flows through the axillary tail 75%
The arterial supply of the breast is derived from: (4) 1. mammary branches of the internal thoracic artery 2. lareral thoracic artery 3. thoracoacromial artery 4. posterior intercosal arteries
Created by: luckynikki