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Blood - Chapter 15

Function of blood: 1. Transport of oxygen, CO2, electrolytes, hormones, proteins, clotting factors
Function of blood: 2. Regulation of fluid and blood sugar
Function of blood: 3. Protection by WBC's, antibodies, clotting factors
What type of tissue is blood? Connective tissue
Average adult - amount of blood 4-6 liters
pH of blood 7.35-7.45
Plasma (mostly water) contains: Albumin, clotting proteins, ions, nutrients, gases, waste
Serum = : plasma - clotting proteins
3 components of blood cells (formed elements) Erythrocytes (RBC's), Leukocytes (WBC's), Thrombocytes (platelets)
Hematocrit (def.) The % of blood cells in a sample of blood (usually 45%). Too low = anemia
What occurs during hematopoiesis? Production (formation) of of blood cells in red bone marrow and lymphoid tissue. (three types are formed from stem cells)
Myelosuppression (def.) Decreased production of blood cells.
Decreased production of RBC's Anemia
Decreased production of WBC's Leukopenia
Decreased production of thrombocytes Thrombocytopenia
Polycythemia (def.) Increased production of blood cells (can cause strokes)
Red bone marrow is produced in which type of bones? Flat bones
What happens to red bone marrow as we age? In the long bones, red bone marrow replaced w/ yellow marrow which doesn't produce blood
Platelets (fragments of cells) start from: Stem cells
Characteristics of RBC's Flexible, biconcave disks, lack nucleus
RBC's make up ___/microliter of blood. 4.5-6 Million
Reticulocytes - definition Immature RBC's
Main component of RBC's which contains iron Hemoglobin
Heme- def. Transportation of oxygen
Cyanosis - def. Lack of oxygen (hypoxia)
Globin - def. Transportation of carbon dioxide
Carbaminohemoglobins -def. Combinations of CO2 and hemoglobins
What nutrients does hemoglobin require? Iron, vitamin b12, folic acid, protein
Give an example of a nutrient deficiency disorder. 1. Iron Deficiency Anemia
Give an example of a nutrient deficiency disorder. 2. Folic Acid Anemia
Pernicious Anemia - def. Due to inadequate vitamin B12 absorption
Why can't RBC's repair themselves? They lack genetic material necessary to do so
What is the average life of an RBC? 120 days
Where does the body dispose of C02? In, then out of the lungs
What hormone is involved with the regulation of RBC production? Erythropoietin (EPO)
What stimulates the secretion of EPO? Decreased blood oxygen level
From where is EPO secreted? Kidneys
How does EPO affect RBC production? Increases production
Condition in which someone would have EPO administered: 1. Emphysema
Condition in which someone would have EPO administered: 2. Bone Marrow Depression
Condition in which someone would have EPO administered: 3. Kidney Failure
How and where are RBC's destroyed? Destroyed my macrophages in the spleen
After RBC breakdown and recycling of components, what is done with globin? Broken down to amino acids
After RBC breakdown and recycling of components, what is done with heme? Iron stored in liver. Bilirubin execreted.
What is jaundice? Yellowing of skin due to excess bilirubin in the blood
Leukocytes contain ___ / microliter of blood. 5,000-10,000
Are WBC's nucleated? Yes
Primary functions of WBC's Defense and phagocytosis
Name the five types of WBC's Neutophils, Basophils, Eosinophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes
Neutrophils: Granulocyte or Agranulocyte? Granulocyte
What color is the stain of neutrophils? Clear
What are other names of neutrophils? Segs, Polys, PMN's
Neutrophils make up what % of WBC's? 55-70%
Phagocytosis during an infection/injury involves: Pus and (absess - walling off of pus)
What happens to neutrophil production during infection? Increased production of immature neutrophils
Basophils: Granulocytes or Agranulocytes? Granulocytes
What is the stain color of Basophils Dark blue
Basophils make up ___% of WBC's Less than 1%
Body's natural blood thinner made from Basophils Heparin (inflammation)
Basodilator that stops bleeding in open blood vessels Histamine
Eosinophils: Granulocytes or Agranulocytes? Granulocytes
Stain color of Eosinophils Red-pink
Eosinophils make up ____% of WBC's 1-3%
What are two conditions that cause inflammation of eosinophils? Parasitic infections and allergies
What is the difference of granulocytes and agranulocytes? Gran. have granules in the cytoplasm, Agrans. do not.
Lymphocytes: Granulocyte or agranulocyte? Agranulocyte
Lymphocytes make up ___% of WBC's 25-38%
Function of lymphocytes Immune response
Monocytes: Granulocytes or Agranulocytes? Agranulocytes
Monocytes make up ___% of WBC's 3-8%
Monocytes contain ______ which are involved in clean up/ eating of large waste particles Phagocytes
Monocytes differentiate into: Macrophages
Platelets are also called: Thrombocytes
Platelets are fragments of: Megakaryocytes
Platelets contain ______/microliter of blood 150,000-450,000
An important function of platelets Blood clotting
Complete Blood Count (CBC) of RBC's include: Hemoglobin, hemocrit, reticulocytes
Complete Blood Count (CBC) of WBC's include: Percentage of each type (differential count)
Hemostasis prevents: Blood loss - through contraction of the blood vessels
Name the three parts of Hemostasis Vasospasm, platelet plug formation, blood clot
Explain vasospasm Decreased diameter of vessel, and therefore, decreased blood flow
Explain platelet plug Platelets stick to the walls of damaged blood vessels to decrease bleeding which then activates clotting factors
Another name for a blood clot Coagulation
During a blood clot, activated clotting factors produce: Prothrombin activator (PTA)
During a blood clot why is prothrombin activated? Form thrombin in the presence of calcium and PTA
During a blood clot, thrombin activates: Fibrinogen, which forms a fibrin net
Anticoagulants have a: Smooth endothelial lining
What anticoagulant substance is released by basophils? Heparin
Medications for blood clots Heparin and coumadin
What kind of cell also releases heparin Mast cell
When does clot retraction and fibrinolysis occur? After a blood clot
Clot retraction and fibrinolysis process Plasminogin (activated by TPA: Tissue Plasminogen Activator) - plasmin - clot dissolved.
What determines blood type? Antigens on membrane of RBC's
Where are antibodies present? Blood plasma
Antigen-Antibody interaction could result in: Agglutination (clumping) and eventually hemolysis (bursting of RBC's)
What can result from incompatible blood groups? Kidney failure and death
What must be done before a blood tranfusion? Blood must be types and cross-matched (donor and recipient blood mixed)
Rh factor (antigen) is located: Membrane of the RBC
Situation in which Rh sensitization can occur: 1. Rh(-) individual receiving Rh(+) blood in transfusion
Situation in which Rh sensitization can occur: 2. Rh(-) mother pregnant with Rh(+) baby
What can result in Rh sensitivity? Erythroblastosis Fetalis, Hemolysis, Kernictus. Treatment: RhoGAM - which coats antibodies which will protect the baby's RBC - widespread
Created by: CBaney