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History Chapter 1


Humanism an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics
humanities the study of subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history; these were taught in ancient Rome and Greece
Petrach he was an Italian/Forentine scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy; one of the earliest humanists; rediscovered Cicero's letters
Florence Considered the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance;
patron a financial supporter of the arts
perspective an artistic technique used to give paintings and drawings a 3-dimensional effect
Leonardo da Vinci Italian Renaissance artist; had an endless curiosity; inventor, painter, sculptor, architect, scientist, musician; a true genius; probably his most famous work was the Mona Lisa
Michelangeo Italian Renaissance sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, poet; widely known for painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Raphael Italian painter; admired for his artistic talent; had a sweet and gracious nature; best known for his Madonna paintings
Baldassare Castiglione was an Italian count, courtier, diplomat, soldier, and prominent author; wrote The Book of the Courtier, which describes manners, skills, learning, and virtues that a member of the court should have.
Niccolo Machiavelli Italian diplomat, politician, historia, philosopher, humanist, and writer; he wrote a guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power; often called the father of modern political science
Johannes Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer and publisher; first European to use a printing press and movable type; his major work was the Gutenberg Bible which was available
Flanders a region that is present-day Florence, Belgium, and the Netherlands
Albrecht Durer German painter, print maker, and theorist; the first northern artist to be profoundly affected by the Renaissance of Italy
engraving art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints
vernacular the every day language of ordinary people
Erasmus born in 1466 in the Netherlands; was a Catholic priest, classical scholar, humanist, social critic, teacher and theologian; he held the doctrine of free will over that of the doctrine of predestination, which was widely accepted by many of the Reformers.
Thomas More English lawyer, philosopher, and Renaissance humanist; 1516 wrote the book Utopia, which was his vision of a perfect society
Utopia visionary and idealistic society; an imaginary island described in Thomas More's book Utopia; idealistic society that was perfect in law, politics, etc
William Shakespere An English poet and playwright; regarded as the greatest writer in the English language; widely known for his plays Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Macbeth
indulgences the Roman Catholic church this was a way to collect money from commoners to grant them pardons for their sins; gave them a "ticket" to heaven for payment
Martin Luther German monk, teacher, and theologian; began the Protestant Reformation when he nailed the 95 theses on the Castle Churcdoors of the University of Wittenberg; these theses questioned some of the basic beliefs of Roman Catholicism;
Wittenberg town in Germany where Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses on the doors of the Castle Church; Johann Tetzel, Catholic priest, set up a pulpit on the outskirts of Witteberg
Charles V was the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and the Spanish Empire in 1519; summoned Martin Luther to the Diet at the city of Worms
Diet assembly or legislature;
John Calvin profoundly impacted the direction of the Protestant Reformation; French theologian, pastor and Reformer; emphasized the doctrine of predestination, which is the interpretation of Scripture regarding salvation being for those God chooses
predestination the doctrine that in God's sovereignty and foreknowledge pre-determines or chooses those who will be saved; or guides those who are destined to be saved
Geneva city-state in Switzerland; John Calvin was asked to stay and lead the Protestant church there.
Sect a sub group of a major religious group
Henry VIII was a Tudor king of England; because of his desire to divorce his first wife, Catherine, he broke from the Catholic church to create the Church of England - so he could marry Anne Boleyn
Mary Tudor Henry and Catherine of Aragon's only surviving daughter;
Elizabeth (known as Elizabeth I) the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
canonize when the Catholic church officially recognizes a dead person as a saint;
compromise acceptable middle ground between protestant and catholic practices
Council of Trent the Roman Catholic church's counter-reformation councils which was held in Trent, in Northern Italy; it was to establish the direction that reform should take; the Pope called this in 1545
Teresa of Avila Spanish Catholic saint; nun and Christian mystic; symbolized the feelings of many Catholics during her time
ghetto Jews were ordered to live in a separate quarter of the city;
Nicolaus Copernicus published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; Renaissance mathematician and astronomer; created a model of the universe that put the sun at center of universe, not the earth.
heliocentric sun-centered
Tyco Brahe from Denmark; he was a Danish nobleman who provided evidence that supported Copernicus' theory;
Johannes Kepler mathematician and astronomer; used Brahe's data to calculate the orbits of the planets revolving around the sun
Galileo Italian scientist, astronomer, mathematician, engineer, philosopher; he assembled an astronomical telescope; this paved the way for the Copernican heliocentric system
Francis Bacon Englishman; a giant of the new scientific method
scientific method step-by-step process of discovery; systematic observation, measurement, experiment, formula, testing and hypotheses
hypotheses possible explanation based on limited evidence
Robert Boyle Anglo-Irish chemist; refined the alchemist's view of chemicals; often credited as being the first modern chemist and founder of modern chemistry
Isaac Newton English mathematician, astronomer, physicist; key figure in the scientific revolution; most famous for his laws on gravity and motion;
gravity the force that keeps the planets in their orbits around the sun
calculus branch of math partially developed by Newton and used to explain his laws
Ignatius Spanish; he was the founder of the Jesuits; a religious sect or group of men from the Catholic church
Rene Descartes stressed human reasoning; French philosopher, scientist and mathematician; known as the father of modern western philosophy
Andreas Vesalius on the study of the human body - first accurate study of the human anatomy; author of one of the most influential books on the human anatomy
Ambroise Pare French physician; often known as the father of modern surgery; created an ointment using egg yolks, rose oil and turpentine to treat wounds, which seemed to heal better with the ointment.
William Harvey described the circulation of the blood for the first time
Anton van Leeuwenhoek perfected the microscope
Created by: tacraw74