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A&P Unit I Vocab.

Anatomy & Physiology Unit I Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Anatomy study of structure
Physiology study of biochemical and physical function
Tissue group of similar cells with general purpose
Organ distinct structure of multiple tissues with specific function within a system
Organ system collection of organs with common functions
Organism one individual made up all systems
Metabolism Sum of chemical reactions to manage energy and materials
Homeostasis steady state equilibrium of internal conditions necessary for healthy function
Receptor senses conditions in and around body (stimuli)
Control Center processes information from receptors and sends directions for response out to effectors
Effector uses directions from control center to respond to conditions (stimuli)
Negative Feedback self-correcting loop that brings conditions back to equilibrium (within normal range)
Positive Feedback amplifying loop that causes an increased response
Chemical bond attractions between atoms or molecules
Chemical reaction converts reactants to products by breaking and/or building chemical bonds
ion charged atom due to gaining or losing electrons
Ionic bond joined when electrons transferred from one atom to another to form ions
Covalent bond atoms joined by sharing pair of electrons
Hydrogen bond attraction between hydrogen and polar molecule
Polar compound compound with partial positive and negative sides
Synthesis reaction build new molecules; stores energy in chemical bonds
Decomposition reaction break down molecules, releases energy
Organic compound compound with C-H bonds
acid releases H+ ions and lowers pH
Anterior front, ventral
Posterior back, dorsal
Medial towards midline
Lateral away from midline
Proximal towards origin
Distal further away from origin
Superficial towards body surface
Deep away from body surface
Superior above
Inferior below
Sagittal plane divides body into right and left and creates longitudinal sections
Frontal plane divides body into anterior and posterior; also called coronal
Transverse plane divides superior and inferior and creates cross-sections
Axial head, neck trunk
Appendicular limbs
Thoracic cavity chest space
Pleural cavities 2 spaces for lungs
Pericardial cavity heart space; also inferior mediastinum
Superior mediastinum space for esophagus, trachea superior and posterior to heart
Abdominopelvic cavity space for digestive and urogenital organs; superior = abdominal; inferior = pelvic
Serosa double membranes covering lining body cavities and organs (parietal= layer along cavity wall; visceral =- layer over organs)
Serous fluid lubrication between visceral and parietal serosa
Created by: blak.isaa394