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Gross Anatomy Test 4

PCC Gross test 4

QuestionAnswer
What does the scalp cover, and where? Covers the calvaria of the skull from the superior nuchal line of the occpital bone into the supraorbital ridge of the frontal bone,laterally extending on to the zygomatic arch.
What forms the scalp proper? First 3 layers
Does the scalp have direct lymph nodes? NO
How does the scalp drain lymph? Into the precervical coller
Layers of the scalp? S.C.A.L.P. Skin, Connective tissue, aponeurosis epicranius, loose connective tissue, pericranium.
Is the first layer of the scalp vascular? Very vascular.
What is the blood supply to the first layer? Supratrochlear, Supraorbital, parietal and frontal , occipital and posterior auricular.
Supratrochlear is a continuation of what artery? Facial
Supratrochlear makes anastomosis between? facial artery and superficial temporal artery.
Supraorbital artery is a branch of what artery. opthalmic
Supraorbital artery forms anastomosis with ? frontal branch of superficial temporal artery.
Occipital artery is a branch of? external carotid artery.
Posterior auricular artery is a branch of? ECA
The second layer of the scalp is very___ and very ___? vascular and innervated.
Nerves of 2nd layer? posterior- greater occipital . posteriolaterally-lesser occipital posterior to ear- auricular branch anterior to ear- auriculotemporal anterior and lateral- zygomaticotemporal anterior-supraorbital and supratrochlear
Tough fascia that connects the frontalis to the occipitalis muscles? Third layer/aponeurosis
Scalp proper? First 3 layers.
Potential space, that can become inflamed with injusry . allows scalp proper to move freely? 4th layer/ loose connective tissue
Dense tissue that is tightly attached to skull via the sharpey's fibers. Fifth layer/pericranium(epicranium/periostium)
All facial muscles are innervated via the 5 branches of ? CN VII, Facial N.
OIA of occipitofrontalis O-poersterior aspect of epicranial aponeurosis(galea) I-Via the aponeurosis into frontalis muscle A- raise the eye brow and wrinkle forehead .
procerus OIA? o- from continuation of frontalis i- skin over nasal ridge. a- wrinkle skin over nose and drop the medial aspect of the eye brow
orbicularis oculi OIA? o- medially from the medial palpebral ligament I- wraps around the tarsal plate and fans out toward the lateral palpebral ligament A- sphinchter for teh orbit
Corrugator supercilii OIA? O-nasal bone and in part from the orbicularis oculi. I-into skin of eye brow A- pulls the eye brow in and down
Nasalis OIA O- from canine eminence of maxilla I into dorsum of nose
Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi OIA O- from maxillary bone just medial and inferior to the infraorbital foramen I- upper lip and cartilage of nose A-elevate upper lip and nose
zygomaticus OIA O- Major: from lateral aspect of zygomatic Minor: from anterior aspect of zygomatic just lateral to infraorbital I- to corner of mouth A- Smiling and laughing
risorius OIA O- very small muscle I usually blends w/ the platysma, to the lateral mouth A- pull corner of mouth
orbicularis oris OIA O-from either commisure of mouth I- fans into cutaneous fascia of the upper and lower lips A- first sphincter of digestive tract, opening of mouth
Depressor speti nasi OIA O-arises from maxilla just superior to central incisor I-into the cartilaginous part of the nasal septum A- depress the nasal septum, opens naris
Depressor anguli oris OIA O-from inferior fibers of platysma I- blends with the orbicularis oris muscle into corner of mouth A- depress the corner of mouth
depressor labii inferiorus OIA O- mandible , just lateral to mental protuberance I- blend with the orbicularis oris A- pull corner of mouth down
mentalis OIA O- arises from mental protuberance of mandible I- skin of chin A- multiple dimples
buccinator OIA from alveolar arch of maxilla and mandlible(pterygomandibular raphe) I- interdigitate with the orbicularis oris A- holds the cheek against the mouth , and assists in mastication.
how many auricular muscles are therE? and what are they 3, auricularis anterior,superior and posterior
Nerves that innervate the face? Facial(motor) and trigeminal (sensory)
Where does the facial nerve leave the cranial vault? Internal acoustic foramina of posterior cranial fossa.
the facial nerve exists the skull via? stylomastoid foramina
At the stylomastoid foramen the facial nerve exits and gives rise to? posterior auricular that innervates occipitalis
Facial nerve crosses over these muscles after exiting and innervates these stylohyoid and posterior belly of digastric
Facial nerve through the _____ forms the parotid plexus , which give rise to __ branches Parotid gland, 5 branches
5 terminal branches of facial nerve that come from parotid plexus? Temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical
What does the temporal branch innervate? Frontalis and palpebral(superious part of orbicularis oculi)
Zygotmaic branch innervates?locations anterior superior aspect of parotid , lower portion of orbicularis oculi
Buccal branch innervates?location Buccinator, and lateral aspect of orbicularis oculi. runs over the masseter into buccal fat.
mandibular branch innervates?location lower lip and muscles of that region- runs over ramus of mandible deep to platysma
cervical branch ?location? exists at the inferior aspect of parotid gland, deep to platysma.
Ophthalmic division V1- innervation and locations? innervates forehead and content of orbital cavity and inner aspect of nasal cavity. enters cranium via the superior orbital fissure then joins trigeminal ganglia(gasserian semilunar) in middle cranial fossa.
Maxillary division V2 innervation and location upper lips , upper teeth, gingival tissue and hard palate, enters infraorbital foramen, and pterygopalatine fossa. eneters the skull through foramen rotundum
mandibular division v3 innervation and location skin of lower lip and chin, lower teeth, gum. enters mental foramen. general sensory to anterior 2/3 of tongue through lingual nerve. enters cranium through foramen ovale.
Facial artery arises from? where? ECA, within the submandibular triangle
the facial artery traverses where? through the submandibular salivary gland , over the ramus of the madible, deep to the platysma, toward corner of mouth, there gives rise to inferior labial A. @ superior lip gives rise to super labial A. @ nasal margin becomes angular A.
the smaller terminal branch of external carotid Superficial temporal A. ascends superiorly through parotid gland exits at its superior aspect just anterior to the ear, gives rise to frontal and parietal arteries.
within the parotid glad, branch off of superficial temporal artery, anterior and inferior to zygomatic arch? transverse facial
Veins of the face are mostly the same as the arteries except these: Supraorbital , infraorbital and deep facial veins.
due to the way some facial veins drain into ______ of the brain may cause problems. cavernous sinus
Boundries of the dangerous triangle? nasofrontal junction, lateral corners of mouth
largest salivary gland of head? parotid
what surrounds the parotid? investing fascia
location of parotid? ramus of mandible, at posterior aspect, wraps around angle of mandible
parotid overlies what muscle? masseter
parotid contains? ECA, facial N, retromandibular V, and parotid lymphatic nodes.
These lymph nodes drain the lymph from the forehaed, lateral aspect of the eye, middle ear, later aspect of ear and anterior wall of external acoustic meatus? parotid lymph nodes
innervation of parotid? Glossopharyngeal IX, via parasympathetic fibers,and of the auriculotemporal branch of auriculotemporal branch of trigeminal
parotid produces what? serous fluid and amylase
parotid duct travels? medially toward the buccinator , pierces through the muscle and enters the oral cavity (vestibular part) @ the 2nd maxillary molar.
Boundries of temporal fossa? Medial(base/floor) - Frontal , great wing of sphenoid, temporal , and parietal . AKA Pterion Lateral- zygomatic arch anterior- zygomatic and frontal bones superior and posterior- superior and inferior temporal lines
major contents of temporal fossa? temporalis and masseter muscles.
Temporalis OIA O- superior and inferior temporal lines of frontal and parietal bones I- into superior and anterior aspect of coronoid process of mandible. A- powerful elevator of mandible, posterior fibers can cause retraction of mandible N- innervated by mandibular
Masseter OIAN O- inferior margin of zygomatic I- into ramus of massteric tuberosity of mandible A- elevator of mandible N- mandibular branch(masseteric nerve)
What covers the masseter? parotid gland and its capsule
boundries of the infratemporal fossa? Superior- anterior portion of the infratemporal line, great wing of the sphenoid Anterior- posterior aspect of maxiall( infratemporal surface) Inferior- point of insertion for the medial pterygoid lateral- internal surface of the mandibular ramus.
What the infratemporal fossa communicates with: Foramen ovale, foramen spinosum , mandibular foramen, infraorbital foramen
The foramen spinosum is where what enters the cranium? Middle meningeal artery, which is a branch of the first part of maxillary artery.
where do the inferior aveolar artery and nerve enter the mandible? mandibular foramen
Larger of the 2 branches of ECA? Maxillary
where is the maxillary located? posterior to the neck of the mandibular condyle. travels anteriorly within the infratemporal fossa.
3 parts of the maxillary artery? 1st mandibular, 2nd pterygoid/muscluar, 3rd pterygopalatine: all in relation to lateral pterygoid
first branch of maxillary gives rise to? deep auricular, anterior tympanic, middle meningeal, accessory meningeal and inferior alveolar
what supplies the external acoustic meatus? deep auricular, from maxillary 1st division
what artery supplies the tympanic membrane? anterior tympanic of maxillary 1st division
inferior and largest branch of mandibular division of maxillary artery, supplies mandibular teeth and gums? inferior alveolar a
longest part of maxillary artery, overlying the lateral pterygoid, sometimes covered by it 2nd part- pterygoid/muscular
parts of the 2nd division of maxillary deep temporal, massteric, pterygoid,buccal
what artery supplies the temporalis deep temporal , 2nd division of maxillary
this artery travels through the mandibular notch supplying masseter. massteric a
this artery supplies the pterygoid muscles ptyergoid a
Divisions of the 3rd part- pterygopalatine of the maxillary artery posterior superior alveolar, infraorbital, decscending palatine, pharyngeal , artery to pterygoid, sphenopalatine
to the maxillary sinus, gingival, and premolar of maxilla? artery* posterior superior alveolar a
entering the orbital cavity :arterial supply to lower eye lid, nose, once exiting through the infraorbital foramen supplies upper lip, infraorbital a via the 3rd division of maxillary(pterygopalatine)
arterial supply to roof of the mouth descending palatine a, via the 3rd division of maxillary.
arterial supply to pharynx ,sphenoid sinus and lower aspect of pharyngotympanic (eustacian) tube pharyngeal artery, via 3rd division of maxillary
arterial supply to upper aspect of pharyngotympanic tube and typmpanic cavity(middle ear) A to pterygoid canal
arterial supply to nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and nasal septum? sphenopalatine(pterygopalatine)
where is the pterygoid venous plexus located? between the temporalis and lateral pterygoid.
what does the pterygoid venous plexus do? communication between facial vein and cavernous sinus of dura mater
nerves of the infratemporal fossa? Otic(arnolds) ganglion(parasympathetic), mandibular n,
where is the otic ganglion? just inferior to foramen ovale. carries sensory of glossopharyngeal to parotid
what are the branches of mandibular nerve? auriculotemporal, buccal, inferior aveolar, lingual
where does the auriculotemporal travel? either side of the middle meningeal artery.
what does the auriculotemporal nerve innervate? parasympathetic to glossopharyngeal to parotid. sensory to auricle and TMJ
where does inferior alveolar nerve travel? enters alveolar foramen of mandible with the inferior alveolar artery, just before entering this gives rise to myohyoid and anterior belly of digastric.
Lingual nerve innervateS? sensory to anterior 2/3 of tongue from mandibular branch, special sensory to anster 2/3 of tongue via chorda tympani of facial
musculature of the infratemporal fossa? medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid
OIAN of medial pterygoid. O- superficial head from maxillary tuberosity, deep head from meadial aspect of lateral pterygoid and pteyrgoid process of sphenoid I- medial mandibular ramus, inferior to alveolar foramen A- bilaterally- elevation and protraction of TMJ, etc.
what type of joint is TMJ? modified synovial double condyloid hinge joint.
articulation of tmj? between the head of the mandible and mandibular fossa of temporal bone
TMJ cavity divided into ___ cavities? 2 synovial
what does the articular disk of tmj separate? superior and inferior synovial cavities.
superior facet of tmj allows for? gliding movement
inferior facet of tmj allows for? hinge movement
primary ligaments of TMJ? articular capsule, lateral ligament, articular disc pad, upper and lower synovial membrane
secondary ligaments of TMJ? stylomandibular and sphenomandibular(check) ligaments
Muscles of mastication? depressors? infrahyoid, suprahyoid, and lateral pterygoid
Muscles of mastication? elevators? masseter, temporalis, medial ptyergoid
Muscles of mastication? protractors? lateral pterygoid(primary mover) assisted by medial pter and masseter.
Muscles of mastication? retractors? posterior fibers of temporalis
Muscles of mastication? lateral movers combo of retractors and protractors
Oral cavity is divided into ___ parts? 2, vestibular and oral cavity proper(cavum oris)
Narrow slit like ,located between the buccal , gingiva ,teeth and cheeks? vestibular
true oral cavity bounded by the alveolar arch to palatoglossal arch? oral cavity proper(cavum oris)
upper lip innervated by? lower by? upper by maxillary division, lower by mental nerve via inferior alveolar n of mandibular
arterial supply to lips? superior and inferior labial A(facial)
What type of joint do the teeth have? Synarthrotic gomphosis, articulate w/ the alveoloar arches of maxialla and mandible
How many primary teeth are in children? deciduous teeth.. 20
secondary , adult teeth? amount 32
where are the palatine tonsils located? between the palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus folds
innervation of palatine tonsils? ascending palatine artery of facial a. and greater and lesser palatine a.
what forms the hard palate? anterior( 2/3). Formed by the maxilla and horizontal plate of palatine bones.
3 pairs of foramina located in hard palate? Incisive, greater, and lesser foramina
what nerves pass through incisive foramina? nasopalatine (sensory to palate) maxillary division
where is the greater palatine foramina and what does it transmit? medial to 3rd maxillary molar. transmits greater palatine artery and nerve( from maxillary division)
where is the lesser palatine foramina? transmits? posterior to greater palatine. lesser palatine artery and nerve.(maxillary division)
what are the palatine arches? palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus
Posterior 1/3 of tongue aka? pharyngeal portion
anterior papilla? fungiform
anteroposterior papilla? filiform
posterior-lateral papilla? foliate
posterior papilla? vallate
inferior aspect of the tongue is covered by what? transparent mucosal membrane
what connects the tongue to the floor? lingual frenulum
where are the deep lingual blood vessels and lingual nerve located? also opening for sublingual salivary gland sublingual fold
where is the opening for submandibular salivary duct? sublingual caruncle
innervation of tongue? Pharyngeal plexus, hypoglossal , lingual and facial
general sensory to posterior 1/3 of tongue ? pharyngeal plexus of glossopharyngeal and vagus
motor of tongue? hypoglossal
general sensory of anterior 2/3 of tongue? via the lingual branch of mandibular
special sensory of the anterior 2/3 of tongue? Facial nerve, (chorda tympani)
where is the submandibular gland located? inferior to the angle of ramus . surrounds the facial artery.
submandibular (whartons) duct opens into? oral cavity proper, posterior to mandibular incisors.
where is the sublingual salivary gland located? with in the genioglossus muscle. opens into the oral cavity , at the sublingual fold.
innervation of sublingual salivary gland? facial
Created by: 55000892