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Endocrinology Ch. 14

Endocrine System - glands, hormones, functions

How is the endocrine system different from the nervous system? Effects are slower acting and longer lived.
Characteristics of endocrine glands 1. Ductless gland.2. Secretes hormones into blood stream.
Chemicals of the endocrine system Hormones
"Hormones" definition Chemical messengers that influence the activities of other tissues and/or organs
General functions of hormones Metabolism, growth, reproduction, water/electrolyte balance
Most common classification of hormone Protein hormone
Classification of hormone that is secreted by the adrenal cortex and gonads Steroid hormones
Hormones exert effect on: Target organs or tissues
How do hormones bind to target tissues? Receptors on the tissue that bind the hormone like a "lock and key" (specificity)
Membrane receptors bind to which type of hormone? Protein hormone
Membrane receptors rely on the production of: Second messenger (cAMP)
Intracellular receptors bind to which type of hormone? Steroid hormone
An example of negative feedback Blood sugar regulation
Two examples of biorhythms Circadian rhythm (1 day)Menstrual cycle (1 month)
Example of stress-related changes in hormone secretion Menstrual cycle
Location of pituitary gland Above sphenoid bone
From where does the pituitary gland extend? From the hypothalamus via a stalk termed the infundibulum.
Name the three parts of the pituitary gland Anterior, posterior, and the smaller third (intermediate) lobe
What is another name for the pituitary gland? Master Gland
Name the type of tissue of which the pituitary gland is composed Glandular tissue
How many different hormones are secreted by the pituitary gland? Nine
The pituitary gland is under the control of which gland? Hypothalamus
The process/route from hypothalamus to pituitary Hypo. secretes releasing/release inhibiting hormones that reach the ant. pit.
Name the route from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary Hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system
Ant. Pit. Growth Hormone (GH) - alternative name Somatatropin /-ic hormone
GH primarily effects (2): 1. Skeletal muscle2. Long bones
Secondary effects of GH Growth and metabolism
1. Hormone that increases blood sugar GH
Hypersecretion of GH during childhood Gigantism
Hypersecretion of GH during adulthood Acromegaly
Hyposecretion of GH Dwarfism
Ant. Pit. Prolactin (PRL) - function Milk production (in mother) after childbirth
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) aka Thyrotropin works by: Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete two thyroid hormones
Adenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Hormone works by: Stimulating the adrenal cortex to secrete steroid hormone
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) works by: Egg/sperm maturation
Lutenizing Hormone (LH) deals with: Sex hormone secretion, ovulation in females [interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH) in males]
Posterior Pituitary is an extension of what gland? Hypothalamus
The Post. Pit. is composed of what type of tissue? Nerve tissue
What two hormones are secreted by the Post. Pit.? ADH and Oxytocin
Literal meaning of "antidiuretic": Going against urine production/holding onto our H2O supply
What stimulates the secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone? 1. Increased blood concentration2. Stress3. Trauma4. Drugs (morphine, nicotine)
Primary target organ of ADH Kidney
How does ADH conserve water? Reabsorbs water from urine, decreasing urine volume
How does ADH affect blood pressure? Raises BP
What disorder is a result of a lack of ADH? Diabetes Insipidus
Two hormones of Post. Pit. ADH and: Oxytocin
Oxytocin secretion stimulated by: Childbirth (uterine contraction) and during breastfeeding (mammary duct contraction - "milk let-down reflex)
Targeted organs of Oxytocin Uterus and mammary glands
Another name for Oxytocin "Bonding" hormone between mother & child, between sexual partners (in theory)
Hormone secreted by the third lobe of Pituitary Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
Increased secretion of MSH causes: Skin to darken
Location of Thyroid Gland Anterior neck
The 2 lobes (right and left) of the thyroid are connected by: Isthmus - band of tissue
Name the two types of Thyroid cells Follicular/Parafollicular cells
The hormone(s) of follicular cells T3 and T4
Another name for T3: Triiodothyronine
Another name for T4: Tetraiodothyronine
Function of T3 and T4 1. Regulate metabolism2. Essential for normal development
Hypothyroidism in adults (name and effects) Myxodema (decreased metabolism, h.r., peristalsis - digestive system movement, temp, thickened skin)
Hypothyroidism in infants (name and effects) cretinism (failure to develop physically and mentally)
Hyperthyroidism - ex. w/ name and effects Graves disease (increased metabolism, h.r., peristalsis, temp, exopthalmia - bulgy eyes)
What element is required to produce T3, T4? Iodine
What condition results from an iodine deficiency? Goiter - growth on the thyroid
Secretion of thyroid is regulated by: Hypothalamus
Regulation of thyroid step 1 Hypothalamus secretes releasing hormone
Regulation of thyroid step 2 Releasing hormone stimulates pituitary to secrete TSH
Regulation of thyroid step 3 TSH stimulates thyroid to produce T3, T4
Regulation of thyroid step 4 Levels maintained via negative feedback
Calcitonin is secreted by: Parafollicular cells of the thyroid
What does calcitonin regulate? Blood calcium levels (along w/ parathyroid hormone) - decreases
Parathyroid is located on ___ of thyroid. Posterior
Hormone of parathyroid PTH - Parathyroid Hormone
What organs does PTH target? Bone, digestive tract, kidneys
PTH increases blood calcium by: 1. Stimulating osteoclast activity in bone
PTH increases blood calcium by: 2. Stimulating kidneys to reabsorb calcium from urine (and excrete phosphate)
PTH increases blood calcium by: 3. Increases absorption of of calcium by digestive tract
Hypocalcemia defintion Low blood calcium
Hypercalcemia definition High blood calcium
Result of low calcium Muscle hyperexcitability w/ intense contractions and spasms
Alternative name of adrenal glands Suprarenal glands
Location of adrenal glands Above kidneys
Region of adrenal glands 1. Inner adrenal medulla
Region of adrenal glands 2. Outer adrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla is part of which branch of the nervous system Sympathetic NS
What three hormones are secreted by the adrenal medulla? 1. catacholamine2. epinephrine3. norepinephrine"Fight or Flight"
The adrenal cortex secretes: Steroid hormones (only other site of steroid hormone secretion)
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex: 1. Glucocorticoids
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex: 2. Mineralcorticoids
Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex: 3. Sex hormones
Glutocorticoids maintain: Blood glucose levels
Definition - cortisol Glutocorticoid steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex during times of stress
Process of cortisol Hypothalmus - Ant. Pit. (ACTH) - adrenal cortex - negative feedback
Aldosterone - definition Mineralcorticoid that reabsorbs sodium and wter
What do mineralcorticoids regulate? Blood volume and BP
Name the two sex hormones Estrogens (females) androgens (males)
Pheochromocytoma - definition Tumor on the Adrenal Medulla resulting in more nor/epinephrine
Example of hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex Addison's Disease - muscle atrophy, bronzing of skin, fluid loss
Example of hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex Cushing's Syndrome - "moon face" "buffalo hump"
Location of pancreas Located transversely across upper abdomen
T/F...The pancreas is both an endocrine gland and exocrine gland. True
Where on the pancreas are the two hormones secreted? Islets of Langerhans
Hormone of pancreas: 1. Insulin (beta cells)
Hormone of pancreas: 2. Glucagon (alpha cells)
Main function of insulin Lowering of blood glucose levels (ONLY hormone to do so)
How does insulin lower blood sugar? Takes glucose out of the blood and sends to cells, telling the cells to use it for energy. If there's already enough, it gets stored for later use.
Poly of Diabetes: 1. Polydipsia - very thirsty
Poly of Diabetes: 2. Polyuria - a lot of urination
Poly of Diabetes: 3. Polyphagia - very hungry/ alot of eating
What is the function of glucagon? Increase blood glucose
What is the name of the process in which glucogon increases blood sugar? Gluconeogenesis
What is the function of gluconeogenesis? Stimulate the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver AND protein to glucose
Hormones of the ovaries Estrogens and progesterones
Hormone of the thymus gland Thymosins - immune response
Hormone of the pineal gland Melatonin - sleep and wake cycle
Hormones secreted by the digestive tract Cholecystokinin and gastrin
Erythropoietin (RBC production) secreted by: Kidneys
Hormone involved in the inflammatory process Prostaglandins
Created by: CBaney