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Apologia Human Body

Module 1

Gross anatomy The study of the macroscopic structures of an organism
Microscopic anatomy The study of the microscopic structures of an organism
Physiology The study of the functions of an organism and its parts
Histology The study of tissues
Organ A group of tissues specialized for a particular function
Tissues Groups of cells specialized for a particular function
Homeostasis A state of equilibrium in the body with respect to its functions, chemical levels, and tissues
Effector A structure in the body that can change the value of a variable
Selective permeability The ability to let certain materials in or out while restricting others
Endocytosis The process by which large molecules are taken into the cell
Exocytosis Transportation of material from inside the cell to outside the cell
Anatomy Concentrates on the structure of an organism
Physiology Studies how an organism and its parts function
An organism is organized as follows: Organism, organ systems, organs, tissues, cells, organelles, and molecules
four types of tissue nervous tissue, muscle tissue, connetive tissue, and epithelial tissue
Epithelial tissue Makes up the lining of many organs
Muscle tissue Muscles are made of this
Connective tissue Cartilage is an example of this
Nervous tissue The brain, spinal cord, etc. are made of this
Negative feedback system This produces the effects that are the opposite of the stress
Positive feedback system This produces effects that are the same as that of the stress
Nucleus Contains DNA
Plasma membrane Holds the cell together and controls entry and exit of substances
Ribosomes Synthesize proteins
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Intercellular transport and synthesis of proteins
Golgi apparatus Packages chemicals for secretion
Secretory vesicle Secretion
Lysosome Breaks down proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and lipids
Mitochondria Produce energy for the cell
Cilia Tiny "hairs", move things
Centrioles Spindle formation for mitosis and meiosis
Three There are this many nucleotides in a codon
An anticodon must bind to a ____________ Codon
Steps in mytosis: Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
"X" shape This shape occurs only when the chromosomes have been duplicated and the duplicates have not been separated from each other.
Prophase and metaphase When the chromosomes have been duplicated and the duplicates have not been separated from each other
Anaphase and telophase When the chromosomes have been separated from their duplicates
What keeps phospholipids oriented properly? The fact that they have a polar head and a nonpolar tail. Even if disturbed, they will reorganize themselves so that the heads are pointed either into the cell or towards the outside, and the tails are pointed towards each other.
A glycoprotein allows for this Identification
A receptor protein does this Takes in messages from other cells
Phospholipids The "fluid" is the fatty part of the membrane and is composed of this
Mosaic This refers to the fact that there are several different proteins scattered throughout
Channel protein Water is small enough to enter through this
Pinocytosis A protein can only enter through this
Charged channel proteins Ions are small enough to go enter through channel proteins, but they use these
Phagocytosis An invading bacterium must be engulfed using these
Created by: q