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Integumentary System

Integumentary Organ System The cutaneous membrane (skin) with various organs
Epithelial Tissue functions Covering body surfaces; lining body cavities
The 3 Major types of epithelial membranes Serous, Mucous, Cutaneous
4th epithelial tissue;lines joints; reduces friction; composed entirely of Connective Tissue Synovial membranes
Lines body cavities (such as thoracic and abdominal); reduce friction and secretes serous fluid- aids in lubrication; components: simple squamous epithelial and thin layer of CT Serous membranes
Lines cavities and tubes that open to the outside of the body (ex. Oral/nasal cavities, tubes of digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems); consists of epi overlying CT; goblet cells secretes mucus Mucous Membranes
Also known as skin; help protect the rest of the body's tissues and organs from physical damage Cutaneous membrane
2 distinct layers Epidermis and dermis
Beneath dermis; masses of loose CT and adipose tissues bind skin to underlying organs; not part of the skin; contains major blood vessels Subcutaneous Layer
Receives nourishment from deepest layer (stratum basale); cells divide and grow and push older cells away from the dermis and towards the surface; poor nutrient supply so cells die over time; thickest at soles of feet and palms Epidermis
Produce melanin which provides skin color Melanocytes
Absorbs UV radiation preventing mutations in DNA and other damaging effects Melanin
Older skin cells thicken and harden by this process Keratinization
Boundary between epidermis and dermis is uneven; binds epidermis to underlying tissues; composed of irregular dense CT; includes tough collagenous and elastic fibers; contains muscle and nerve fibers; create facial expressions Dermis
Unique and form during fetal development; identical twins have different _____ Fingerprints
Stimulated by heavy pressure Pacinian Corpuscle
Senses light touch Meissner's Corpuscles
Helps to conserve body heat Adipose tissue
Hair follicles, nails, and skin glands are considered _____ _____ Accessory Organs
Present except palms, soles, lips, nipples, and parts of external reproductive organs; follicle extended from surface into dermis and contains hair root Hair follicles
Epidermal cells which have become keratinized and died Hair shaft
Genes determine this by directing the type and amount of pigment that epidermal melanocytes produce Hair color
What hair color has more melanin than blond? Dark hair
This hair color has iron pigment which is not found in any other type of hair color Red hair
A bundle of smooth muscle cells which attach to each hair follicle Arrector Pili Muscle
Consists of nail plate and nail bed Nails
Whitish, thickened, half moon shape region; most active growing region Lunula
Keratinized scales form this Nail plate
These are skin glands Sebaceous glands and sweat glands
Associated with hair follicle; holocrine glands; secrete sebum; makes hair and skin soft Sebaceous glands
Fatty material Sebum
Widespread in skin; consists of tiny tube which originates as a ball-shaped coil in dermis or superficial subcutaneous layer Sweat Glands
Most numerous; respond to body temp; located in forehead, neck, and back Eccrine Glands
Develop a scent as they are metabolized by skin bacteria; activated during puberty Apocrine Glands
Secrets earwax Ceruminous Glands
Secretes milk Mammary Glands
Water and small amounts of salt and wastes (urea and uric acid) Sweat
All people have about same number of melanocytes (differences depend on amount of melanin produced); environmental factors include sunlight, UV Radiation, and x-rays Skin color
Releases heat Cellular metabolism
Most active cells Major heat producers
Vessels dilate (enlarge), releasing heat Vasodilation
Vessels contract (shrink), diverting blood to surface Vasoconstriction
Hypothalamus Controls body temp
Infrared heat rays escape from warmer surfaces to cooler surroundings Radiation
Heat moves from body directly to cooler objects Conduction
Air becomes heated and moves away from body Convection
Sweating Evaporation
Too cold Hypo
Too hot Hyper
Elevated body temp Hyperthermia
Lowered body temp; prolonged exposure to cold; warm gradually Hypothermia
Yellow orange color Jaundice
Blood pigment Hemoglobin
Slightly burned skin may become warm and reddened; surface will shed; no scarring; heals within 2 weeks; SUPERFICIAL PARTIAL-THICKNESS 1st Degree Burn
Effects the dermis and epidermis layer of skin; causes pain, redness, swelling, blistering; heals two or three week without scarring/ more than 3 weeks with scarring; changes pigment of skin; does not scar 2nd Degree Burn
Rinse Burn with cool water, gently clean with clean water, bandage burn 2nd Degree Burn treatment
Destroys epidermis, dermis, and accessory organs of the skin; healing can only occur by growth of epithelial cells inward from the margin of the Burn; injured skin becomes dry and leathery 3rd degree burn
Usually caused by immersion in hot liquids or prolonged exposure to hot objects 3rd Degree Burns Cause
Cell cycle slows, so skin cells grow larger/irregular shapes; sulfur bond cause skin to appear scaly; dermis becomes reduced because suggests of collagen and elastin slows; fewer #s of lymphocytes cause wounds to not heal as quickly Life Span
Cannot conserve heat by concentrating heat in central areas because of Lessened vessels
Why do some people have darker skin than others? More melanin
People who inherit mutant melanin genes have non pigmented skin Albinism
Normal body temp 37C/98.6F
Blood vessels break if _______ Cut extends into dermis or subcutaneous layer
Newly formed cells fill the gap if ______ The cut in shallow
Blood clots are made of _______ (fibrous protein) Fibrin
Removed dead cells and other debris Phagocytic cells
New tissue is formed and scab falls off, leaving ______ Scab
Rounded masses called ______ develop in exposed tissues in large wounds Granulations
Nerve impulses stimulate structures in skin and other organs to release heat in ______ Intense heat
Keratinized cells become part of what in the nail? Nail bed
Created by: giannariche