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Mod F Chap 1-4

ATOM The smallest chemical unit of matter that contains protons and neutrons and is surrounded by electrons.
H2O Makes up 65% of a males body weight and 55% of a females body weight.
CELLS The basic building blocks for the various structures that together make up a human being.
ANATOMY Study of the physical structure of the body and its organs.
PHYSIOLOGY Science of the function of cells, tissues, and organs.
CYTOLOGY Study of cells.
MEDIAL Refers to anything located towards the midline.
LATERAL Refers to anything away from the midline.
PROXIMAL Indicates nearness to point of attachment or point nearest to center of the body.
DISTAL Indicates distance away from point of attachment or point away from center of body.
CORONAL (FRONTAL) An imaginary line that divides the body into front and back sections.
ANTERIOR (VENTRAL) Refers to anything in located in the front section.
POSTERIOR (DORSAL) Refers to anything located in the back section.
TRANSVERSE PLANE An imaginary horizontal line that divides the body into top and bottom sections.
SUPERIOR Refers to anything located above the line or towards the head.
IFERIOR Refers to anything below the line or towards the feet.
SUPERFICIAL Towards the surface.
DEEP Far from the surface.
ANATOMICAL POSITION Standing erect, facing forward, arms at sides, palms of hands facing forward, toes directed forward. Body is assumed to be in this position when describing a position on the body.
CRANIAL CAVITY Provides protection for the brain.
ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY (DIVIDFD IN THREE PARTS) Upper abd. contains stomach, small intestines, large intestine, liver, spleen, pancreas, and gall bladder. Lower pelvic contains bladder, part of the large intestine, and the internal reproductive organs. Retroperitoneal cavity contains kidneys.
EPIGASTRIC (ABD. REGIONS) Upper center above stomach.
UMBILICAL (ABD. REGIONS) Middle center region by umbilicus.
HYPOSGASTRIC (ABD. REGIONS) Pubic region, lower center.
HYPOCHONDRIAC (ABD. REGIONS) (Right and left) Either side below ribs.
LUMBAR (ABD. REGIONS) Either side by long bones of spinal cord.
ILIAC (ABD. REGIONS) (OR INGUINAL REGIONS) (Right and left) Either side by groin
FILTRATION Movement of solutes and waste across a semipermiable membrane as a result of a force.
HOMEOSTASIS Stable condition of an internal environment, dysfunction causes illness or death.
TISSUES Made up of 60-99% water with various substances dissolved in it.
EPITHELIAL (TISSUE) Covers surface of the body, forms body glands, and forms lining of body cavities.
CONNECTIVE (TISSUE) Supporting structure of the body both soft and hard, fat (adipose tissue), vessels.
NERVE (TISSUE) Made up of neurons, and forms nerves, brain, and spinal cord.
MUSCLE (TISSUE) Contracts on stimulation, voluntary muscle is skeletal, and involuntary is cadiac and smooth.
ORGANS Two or more tissues working together to perform a specific funtion.
BODY SYSTEMS Muscular, urinary, respiratory, digestive, endocrine, reproductive, skeletal, lymphatic, integumentary, nervous, and circulatory.
FUNCTION OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Support, protection, leverage, storage, blood cell protection, form (body shape).
BONE STRUCTURE (COMPOSITION) 20% water, 2/3 inorganic materials, and 1/3 organic materials.
TYPES OF BONE TISSUE Compact: Hard, dense and found near the surface where strangth is required.Spongy (cancellous) Mesh like found in ends of long bones and center of flat bones.Marrow: Loose connective tissue that fills cavities of bones.
RED(TYPES OF BONE TISSUE) Produces formed elements of blood
YELLOW(TYPES OF BONES TISSUE) Made up of fatty tissue and has no blood production function.
TYPES OF BONE TISSUE CONTINUED Periosteum is connective tissue around a bone Endostuem is inner lining of bones Haversian canal is a duct in bone that contains blood vessels and Osteocytes are bone cells.
BONE SHAPES Long, short, flat, irregular.
NUMBER OF BONES 270 at birth and 206 at adulthood. Differences between number at birth and adulthood due to fusion of bones.
AXIAL SKELETON Spinal column, skull, ribcage.
APPENDICULAR SKELETON Arms, hands, feet, legs, shoulders, pelvis.
JOINTS A place where any two or more bony parts join together also called articulation. Held together by bands of connective tissue called ligaments.
TYPES ON JOINTS Gliding, hinge, pivot, & ball and socket.
TYPES OF MOVEMENT Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation.
TYPES OF Fx's Greenstick, bone cracks no break..common in children -Simple or closed, complete break does not break skin..Compound or open, complete break bone protrudes through skin..Impacted, broken ends are jammed into eachother.....
TYPES OF Fx's continued.. Comminuted, more than one fracture, bone fragments..Depressed, broken pieces of skull driven inward..Spiral, break winds around bones, common in sports accidents..Colles, Fxof distal end of radius and or ulna.
ARTHRITIS Joint inflammation.
LUMBAR MYOSITIS Inflammation of the lumbar region muscles of the back.
KYPHOSIS Bowing of the back usually at the thoracic level.
LORDOSIS Anterior convex curvature of the lumbar spine.
SCOLIOSIS Lateral curvature of the spine usually in the thoracic region.
CEPHALAD Toward the head.
OSTEOCYTES Mature bones cells embedded in the matrix
OSTEOBLASTS Immature bones cells that can develop into osteocytes
OSTEOCLASTS The demolition team of bone tissue.
PERIOSTEUM Covers outer surface of a bone.
ENDOSTEUM Lines the marrow cavity inside of a bone.
OSSIFICATION Bone formation.
CRANIAL BONES Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, ethmoid.
FACIAL BONES Lacrimal, nasal, maxillary, zygomatic bones, mandible, (Deeper bones of face)= palatines bones, vomer, and inferior nasal conchae.
SUTURES Immovable joints between bones.
Created by: kelly_c213