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Anat & Physio terms

Term Prefixes and Suffixes

a-, an, non without, not ex. apnea (not breathing) Anurial (without urine) nonstriated (muscle not striated)
ab-, ef- away ex. Abductor Muscle (muscle pulling away from midline- deltoid) Efferent Neuron (carrying info away from brain)
ad-, af- toward ex. Afferent neuron (carrying info toward brain) Adductor Muscle (muscle pulling toward midline- groin)
adi-, lip(o) fat ex. Adipose (fat tissue) Liposuction (removing fat from body through suction)
alg pain ex. Neuralgia (nerve pain) Fibromyalgia (muscle pain)
ana- up ex. Anabolic Reaction (building up molecules- bonding amino acids together to make proteins)
ang(i) vessel ex. Angiogenesis (making of a new blood vessel) Vasodialator (medicines that widen a vessel)
ante-, pre-, pro- before ex. Prenatal (before birth) Antebrachial (before the upper arm) Promonocyte (before the monocyte is mature)
anti-, contra- against, resisting ex. Antibody (resisting a foreign body -pathogen) Contraception (against conception- egg and sperm)
aqua(e)-, hydr- water ex. Aqueous (water solution) Hydrocephalus (water- cerebral spinal fluid (CSF)- on the brain)
anthr(o), artic- joint ex. Arthritis (joint inflammation) Articulation (joint where 2 points meet)
-ase enzyme ex. Maltase (enzyme breaking down maltose) Lipase (enzyme breaking down lipids/fats)
audi- hear ex. Auditory Nerve (nerve connecting the ear to the brain)
aut(o)- self ex. Autoimmunity (self immunity- when one's antibodies attack it's own cells/tissues)
bi-, di-, diplo two ex. Bicuspid (2 pointed- tooth or heart valve) Diencephalon (2 parts within the brain) Diplococcus (2 round bacteria)
brachy-, brev(i)- short ex. Brachydactyly (short digits- toes/fingers) Fibularis Brevis (short muscle in lower leg)
brady- slow ex. Bradycardia (slower than normal heart rate)
bronch- airway ex. Bronchitis (airway [bronchus] tube entering lungs- inflammation)
card- heart ex. Cardiology (study of the heart)
cat- down ex. Catabolic Reaction (breaking down molecules- protein bonds being broken to form amino acids)
hepat- liver ex. Hepatitus (inflammation of the liver (usually caused by viral infection))
hex- Six ex. Hexose (a sugar containing 6 carbons (glucose=C6H12O))
hist- Tissue ex. Histology (study of tissues)
hyper- Over, Excessive ex. Hypertonic (greater solute concentration) Hyperesthesia (excessive _______ sensitivity)
hypo, infra-, infer, sub- Under, Below, Less ex. Hypotonic (lesser solute concentration) Infraorbital (below eye) Submandibular (under the jaw)
hyster- , metr- Uterus ex. Hysterectomy (cutting out of uterus) Endometrium (inner lining of uterus (lost each month in females))
-iasis, -osis Condition of ex. Cholelithiasis (having gallstones) Nephrosis (kidney disorder)
itis Inflammation of ex. Appendicitis (inflammation (swelling, redness, warmth, and pain ) of the appendix)
inter- Between ex. Interstitial Fluid (an extracellular fluid found between cells)
kilo- , milli- 1000, 1000th ex. Kilogram (1000 grams) Milligram (1000th of a gram)
hemi- , semi- Half ex. Cerebral Hemisphere (one half of the brain (left or right cerebral hemisphere))
hem- Blood ex. Hemothorax (blood that has leaked into chest cavity)
-graphy ...
-graph Writing Apparatus ex. Electrocardiograph (apparatus/machine used to make an electrocardiogram)
-gram Something Written ex. Electrocardiogram- ECG (print-out of the electrical cavity of the heart)
gyn Women ex. Gynecologist (doctor specializing in the treatment of females and their reproductive system)
gluc- , gly , -ose Sugar ex. Glucose (monosaccharide of carbohydrates (sugars) Glycogen (big molecule made of glucose)
gloss/tt, lingu Tongue ex. Hypoglossal (cranial nerve connected under the tongue) Sublingual (salivary gland under tongue)
glom Ball ex. Glomerulus (ball of capillaries in kidney where metabolic waste is filtered)
ger (o,i) Aging, Old ex. Gerontology (study of aging) Geriatrics (branch of medicine dealing with older patients)
-gen, poie- , blast Create, Form ex. Oogensis (create an egg) Hemopoiesis (form new blood cells) Osteoblast (make new bone cells)
gastr- Stomach ex. Gastric Bypass Surgery (surgery for obese patients to dramatically reduce stomach size)
ex- , ecto- Outside ex. Extracellular Fluid (solute/fluid located outside of cells)
foram- Opening ex. Infraorbital Foramen (an opening in the bone below the eye for nerves and vessels to pass)
fasci- Bundle ex. Muscle or Nerve Fascicle (a bundle r grouping of muscle or nerve cells)
-esthe Sensation ex. Anesthesia (with sensation or feeling)
erythr- Red ex. Erythrocyte (red blood cell)
equi- , homo- , iso- Same, Equal, Balanced ex. Homeostasis (constant internal balance (of body function)) Isotonic (equal solute (ICF and ECF))
epi- Upon, Over, Above ex. Epidermis (layer of skin over epidermis) Epididymis (coiled tubes above testes)
en- , endo- , intra- Inside, Within ex. Endosteum (cavity/space inside a bone) Intraocular (inside the orbit or eye socket)
-emia Blood Condition ex. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
-emesis Vomiting ex. Hyperemesis (excessive vomiting)
edem- Swelling ex. Lymphedema (swelling of tissues due to accumulation of lymph)
ectop- Displaced ex. Ectopic Pregnancy (displaced pregnancy (embryo implant outside uterus- usually oviduct))
-ectomy , -tom , -sect Cut, Cut out ex. Appendectomy (cut out appendix) Lobotomy (cut out cerebral (brain) lobes) Dissect (cut in two)
dys- , mal- Bad, Painful, Difficult ex. Dyspnea (difficult breathing) Malnutrition (bad nutrition/diet) Malabsorption (poor nutrient absorption)
dia- , per- , trans Through, Separate, Across ex. Diarrhea (flow through intestines) Permeable (across a membrane) Transcutaneous (across skin)
dent , dont Tooth, Teeth ex. Dentalgia (tooth pain) Orthodontist (doctor that straightens teeth)
dec (k) 10, 1/10th ex. Decade (10 years) Dekagram (10 grams) Deciliter (1/10th of a liter)
dactyl, digit Finger or Toe ex. Syndactyly (fingers or toes that are together (webbed))
-cyte Cell ex. Leukocyte (white blood cell)
cyan- Blue ex. Cyanosis (condition causing skin to turn blue (due to low oxygen levels))
cut , derm Skin ex. Subcutaneous (below the skin) Dermatitus (skin inflammation)
-crine Secrete, Release ex. Endocrine Gland (glands that secrete hormones into bloodstream)
corp- , soma- Body ex. Corpus Luteum (yellow body (former follicle in ovary)) Somatic Cell (body cell (all non-sex cells))
coel- , sinu- Cavity, Space ex. Coelom (body cavity) Frontal Sinus (space in the frontal bone)
co- , con- , sym , syn , sys- Together, With ex. Congenital (born with) Synthesis (put together) System (organs working together)
-clast Osteoclast (bone breaker (cells that destroy cells, thus shaping a bone)
circ- , peri- Around ex. Circumcision (cut around) Periodontal (around the teeth)
-cide Kill ex. Spermacide (sperm killer)
chondr- Cartilage ex. Chondrocyte (cartilage cell)
chol- , cystic Gall Bladder ex. Cholecystokinin (hormone causing gallbladder contraction) Cystic Duct (tube (for bile) from gallbladder)
cephal- , -ceps Head ex. Hydrocephalus (water in the brain (in the head)) Biceps Femoris (2-headed (2 tendons) muscle by femur))
-centesis Puncture ex. Amniocentesis (puncture to aspirate (remove) amniotic fluid from amniotic sac)
cent- 100, 100th ex. century (100 years) Centigram (1/100th of a gram)
mnem- Memory ex. Amnesia (loss of memory)
mono- , uni- One ex. Monozygotic (twins coming from the same zygote (twins)) Unicellular (one-celled organism)
morph, -plasty Shape ex. Morphology (differentiating/distinguishing by shape) Rhinoplasty (nose shaping (surgical repair))
mort, necr Death ex. Post Mortem (after death) Necrotic Tissue (dead tissue)
multi- , poly- Many ex. Multinucleate (many nuclei (ie. skeletal muscles)) Polysaccharide (many monosaccharides)
mut- Change ex. Mutation (any change in the sequence of DNA)
myo- Muscle ex. Myopathy (muscle disease) Myofibril (skeletal muscle cell)
nas- , rhin Nose ex. Nasal Septum (division/wall in nasal cavity) Rhinovirus (virus frequently infecting the nose)
nat- Birth ex. Prenatal (before birth)
neo- New ex. Neonatal (newborn)
nephr- , ren Kidney ex. Nephrosclerosis (hardening of the kidney) Renal Vein (vessel carrying blood away from the kidney)
o(o), ovi Egg ex. Oophorectomy (removal of ovary (egg maker)) Oviduct (tube transporting egg to uterus)
oct Eight ex. Octet Rule (atom's desire to fill its outer shell with 8 electrons which allows bonding)
Created by: moo_30