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NAU A&P 21

NAU A&P Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

Factors that lead to respiratory acidosis or reduced gas exchange in the lungs such as emphysema or pneumonia: Decreased rate & depth of breathing; Obstruction of air passages; Decreased gas exchange-Accumulation of CO2-Respiratory Acidosis
Factors that lead to Acidosis: Accumulation of acids; loss of bases- Increased concentration of Hydrogen ions
Factors that lead to Respiratory Alkalosis: Anxiety, Fear, Poisoning, High altitude- Hyperventilation- Excessive loss of CO2- Decrease in concentration of H2CO3- Decrease in concentration of Hydrogen ions- Respiratory Alkalosis
Factors that lead to Metabolic Acidosis: Kidney failure 2 excrete acids;Excessive production of acidic ketones-Accumulation of nonrespiratory acids-Metabolic acidosis-Excessive loss of bases-Prolong diarrhea w/loss of alkaline intestinal secretions;prolong vomiting w/loss of intestinal secretion
Factors that lead to Alkalosis: Loss of acids; Accumulation of bases- Decreased concentration of Hydrogen ions
Factors that lead to Metabolic Alkalosis: Gastric drainage; Vomiting with loss of gastric secretions- Loss of acids- Net increase in alkaline substances- Metabolic Alkalosis
Not uniformly distributed, so water & electrolytes occupies these varying compositions. Can be altered by diet, high or low sodium, high or low potassium. Fluid Compartments
Makes up distribution of body fluids: Fluid Compartments, Body Fluid Composition, Movement of fluid between compartments
Is made up of intracellular and extracellular fluids: Body Fluid Composition
Made up of hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressure and sodium ion concentration Movement of fluid between compartments
Differences of fluid compartments in males and females Females: 52% water by weight; more adipose in females. Adipose contains little water. Males: 63% water by weight, more muscle in males. Muscle contains alot of water.
Fluid enclosed within the cell membrane. Made up of water and electrolytes. Intracellular Fluid
Fluids existing outside of the membrane. Contains more protein than interstitial fluid or lymph. Extracellular Fluid
Intracellular Fluid is made up of: High concentrations of: Potassium, Phosphate, Magnesium, Sulfate Low Concentrations of: Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, Bicarbonate
Extracellular Fluid High concentrations of: High concentrations of: Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, Bicarbonate Low Concentrations of: Potassium, Phosphate, Magnesium, Sulfate
2 Major factors regulate the movement of water & electrolytes from one fluid compartment to another. Hydrostatic pressure and Osmotic pressure
Another term for Hydrostatic pressure Blood Pressure
The force of fluids when in equilibrium Hydrostatic pressure
When water molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Osmotic pressure
Explain how hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure regulate fluid movements: 1- Fluid leaves plasma because of hydrostatic pressure & returns to plasma because of osmotic pressure 2-Hydrostatic pressure drives fluid into lymph 3- Osmotic pressure regulates fluid movement in & out of cells.
A decrease in extracellular sodium ion concentration, causes a net movement of water from the extracellular compartment into the intracellular compartment by osmosis, causing the cell to: Swell
Controlled by thirst receptors in hypothalamus that activates ADH in posterior pituitary that activates ingestion of water and retention of water. When balance has been restored, negative feedback mechanisms reverse process until homeostasis is resumed. Water Balance
Exists when the quantities of electrolytes the body gains equal the electrolytes lost. Generally ingested from food & fluid intake. Lost by sweating, deficating and urinating. Never truly exists since the body is in constant flux. Electrolyte Balance
Negative feedback acts a potassium ion concentration, which increases causing the adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone to activate resorption of sodium ions and increase a secretion of potassium ions. Regulation of Electrolyte Output
2 negative feedback endocrine systems working to maintain the body ADH- Antidiuretic Hormone and Posterior Pituitary
Water output or ways water is lost: Urine, Feces, Sweat, Evaporation from the skin, Evaporation from the lungs
Water output is controlled by: Distal Convoluted Tubule and Collecting Ducts of the Nephron
Water balance disorders: Dehydration, Water intoxication and Edema
A deficiency condition that occurs when the output of water exceeds the intake of water. Dehydration
Disease due to excessive fluid intake Water intoxication
Abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid within the interstitial spaces. Edema
Facts associated with edema: Low plasma concentration, Obstruction of lymph vessels, Increased venous pressure, Inflammation
Electrolytes of greatest importance to cellular function releases: Sodium-Potassium-Calcium-Magnesium-Chloride-Sulfate-Phosphate-Bicarbonate-Hydrogen ions
Electrolytes obtained from: Primarily food, also drinking water and other beverages, some by metabolic reactions
Loss of electrolytes occurs by: Sweat, Feces, Greatest output from kidney function and urine output
Sources of hydrogen ions after acid-base balance: Aerobic respiration of glucose, Anaerobic respiration of glucose, Incomplete Oxidation of fatty acids, Oxidation of amino acids containing sulfur
Can donate a hydrogen ion into solution, the more Hydrogen ions donated the stronger this is: Acid
Can accept Hydrogen ions from a solution, the more OH ions donated the stronger this is: Base
Is a balanced combination of an acid with this, KCL- Potassium Chloride Salt
Monitors the acidity & alkalinity of a solution based on how many ions have been released into the solution. The higher the H concentration the more acidic the solution. The higher the OH concentration the more basic the solution. pH scale
This should always be between 7.35 and 7.45 with the optimal number being 7.40 pH of the blood
Ionizes more completely or releases more hydrogen ions. Ex: Hydrochloric acid Strong acid
Ionizes less completely, holds onto hydrogen ions. Ex: Carbonic acid Weak acid
Combines readily with hydrogen ions. Ex: Hydroxide ions Strong base
Combines less readily with hydrogen ions. Ex: Bicarbonate Weak base
Aerobic respiration of glucose creates: Carbonic acid
Anaerobic respiration of glucose creates: Lactic acid
Incomplete oxidation of fatty acids create: Sulfuric acid
Oxidation of amino acids containing sulfur creates: Acidic Ketone Bodies
Breakdown (hydrolysis) of phosphoproteins and nucleic acid creates; Phosphoric acid
Resist pH change & help prevent such changes as bicarbonates, phosphate and protein buffer systems to regulate H ion concentrations from strong acid to weak acid & strong base to weak base. Buffers
Takes up H ions when body fluids become more acidic & give up H ions when the fluids become more basic. Acid-base buffer systems
Changes in pH values of the body fluids is controlled by: Chemical buffer systems, Respiratory excretion of CO2, Renal excretion of hydrogen ions
Acts rapidly and only temporarily solves the problem of the acid-base balance. Ex: Tums, Mylanta and Prilosec Chemical buffer systems or Acid-base buffers
Respiratory center in the medulla oblongata controls the rate and depth of breathing Respiratory excretion of CO2
Renal excretion of hydrogen ions by: Nephrons secrete H ions to regulate pH balance; Phosphate buffer H ions in urine; Ammonia produced by renal cells helps transport H ions to the outside of the body.
If CO2 and Hydrogen levels are high, breathing rate and depth increase. Hypoventilation
If CO2 and Hydrogen levels are low, breathing is inhibited by the respiratory center Hyperventilation
Acid-base buffer systems: Bicarbonate buffer system, Phosphate buffer system, Protein buffer system
Stabilizes pH of a solution despite an addition of an acid or base Bicarbonate buffer system
Present in both intracellular & extracellular fluids, important in control of hydrogen ion concentration in intracellular fluid, renal tubular fluid and urine Phosphate buffer system
Consists of the plasma proteins, such as albumin and certain proteins within the cells, including hemoglobin of red blood cells Protein buffer system
Created by: FKrouse