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A&P CH 1

anatomy & physiology

TermDefinition
append- to hang something: appendicular- pertaining to the upper and lower limbs
cerebr- brain
cran- helmet, cranial-pertaining to the part of the skull the surrounds the brain
homeo- same- homeostasis, maintenance of a stable internal environment
-logy study of
meta- change ; metabolism: chemical changes in the body
orb- circle; orbital
pariet- wall: parietal membrane: membrane that lines the wall of a cavity
peri- around: pericardium. membrane around the heart
pleur- rib: pleural membrane- membrane that encloses the lungs within the rib cage
-stasis standing still: homeostasis; maintenance of a stable environment
super- above: superior; referring to a body part located above another
-tomy cutting: anatomy ; study of structure, which often involves cutting or removing body parts
anatomy greek for "cutting up" human body
physiology how the body functions "relationship to nature"
planum temporale enables people to locate sounds in space
atoms composed of subatomic particles
molecules atoms joined together
macromolecules small molecules combined
cell basic unit of structure and function
organelles carry on specific activities, composed of assemblies of large molecules, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
tissue group of cells functioning together
organs groups of tissues form organs that are complex structures that have specialized functions
organism interacting organ systems
axial portion includes the head neck and trunk: cranial, vertebral, thoracic, abdominopelvic cavity
appendicular portion includes the upper and lower limbs
viscera upper thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
mediastinum region between the lungs, contains heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus (divides the thorax into left and right halves)
viscera lower stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and the small and large intestines.
aging refers to the changes in the body that occur with the passage of time, slows down wound healing, cells are less efficient in at extracting energy from nutrients and breaking down aged or damaged cell parts. slow metabolism
superior means a part is above another part. ( the thoracic cavity is superior to the abdominopelvic cavity)
inferior means a part is below under (neck inferior to the head)
posterior (dorsal) means toward the back (pharynx is posterior to the oral cavity)
medial refers to an imaginary midline dividing the body into equal left and right halves. a part is medial if it is closer to the midline than another part.
lateral means toward the side. away from the midline.
Bilateral refers to paired structures, one on each side.
Charascteristics of life Movement, Responsiveness, Growth, Reproduction, Respiration, Digestion, Absorption, Circulation, Assimilation, Excretion
Maintenance of Life Heat, Pressure, Water, Oxygen, Food
Homeostasis Maintenance of an INTERNAL environment
organ system organs working together to provide specialized functions
Integumentary system Includes : Hair, skin, nails Function: cover the body, senses changes and regulates temperature.
Skeletal System Includes: bone, ligaments Function: support, protect, provides framework, stores inorganic salts, and houses blood forming tissue.
Muscular System Includes: Muscle Function: provides body movement, composed posture, and source of body heat.
Nervous System Includes: brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs function: uses sensory receptors to receive signals and sends motor impulses to muscles and glands.
Endocrine System Includes: glands that secrete hormones Function: integrates metabolic functions
Cardiovascular System Includes: Heart, and blood vessels. Function: distributes O2 and nutrients throughout the body while removing wastes.
Lymphtic System Includes: Lumphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen Function: Drain excess tissue fluid and houses immune cells.
Digestive system Includes: Mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs. Funtions: Receives, digests and abdorbs nutrients.
Respiratory Sysytem Includes; ungs, and passageways Function: exchanges gases between blood and the air
Urinary System Includes: Kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Funtcion; Removes waste from the blood and helps maintain water and electrolyte balance.
Sagittal devides the body into right and left portions
Transverse divides the body into superior and inferior portions
Coronal/ frontal divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
ipsilateral structures on the same side. right lung right kidney
contralateral opposite sides. left lung right kidney
proximal a part closer to the point of attachment to the trunk than another part.
Distal part is farther from a point of attachment than another part.
superficial near the surface
deep more internal parts
epigastric upper middle portion
right and left hypochondriac right and left upper portion
umbilical central portion
right and left lateral (lumbar) right and left of umbilical
pubic lower middle portion
right and left inguinal (iliac) right and left of pubic
Created by: heathersutton87