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Quiz on Important Enlightenment Thinkers for Honors History

What was the Enlightenment An intellectual and Scientific movement of 17th and 18th century Europe which was characterized by a rational and scientific approach to religious, social, political, and economic issues.
Enlightenment thinkers applied reason when considering... Government Structures and the government/citizen relationship.
Enlightenment thinkers believed that citizens should have a greater... Voice/role in the government.
No More Absolute Monarchs
What did Enlightenment thinkers push for? Written constitutions and Natural Rights for the people.
What did Enlightenment thinkers teach the people to do? Ask "Why?" and look beyond the Bible, Ancient Greek and Roman scholars, and the absolute monarchs of the day to find "truth" in society.
John Locke's Time Frame/Country 17th Century England
John Locke's Literary works An Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Two Treatises of Government
What does Tabula Rasa mean and what is the idea behind it? Tabula Rasa means Blank Mind, and it means that everyone is born with a blank mind and fill their minds with information gathered from experiences.
What did John Locke believe was here before societies formed. He believed humans lived in a natural state of equality and freedom, rather than a state of war and chaos. Society as a whole decided to form a government in order to insure protection of their natural rights
John Locke's natural rights Life, Liberty, and Property
John Locke's mutual agreement between the people and their government The government must protect the rights of the people. In turn, the people will act reasonably toward the government.
What does John Locke believe must happen if the government breaks their part of the mutual agreement? If this happens, the people are permitted to form a new government.
Who does John Locke consider people? White, Landholding, Aristocratic men only.
Montesquieu's full name Charles- Louis de Secondat, the Baron de Montesquieu
Montesquieu's Time Frame/Country 18th century France (Nobility)
Montesquieu's major literary work The Spirit of the Laws
What did Montesquieu use the Scientific Method for? To find natural laws which govern the social and political relationships of human beings.
Montesquieu's 3 types of governments. Republic for smaller states, Despotism for large states, and Monarchies for moderate size states.
What did Montesquieu believe about the English government? He believed it had 3 branches: Executive (Monarch) legislative (Parliament), and judicial (courts)
The English government functioned under what? A separation of powers (Each branch limits and controls each other through checks and balances.
Montesquieu believed the English government provided the greatest what. Freedom and security for the state
Voltaire's Time Frame/Country 18th Century France (wealthy middle class)
Voltaire's major literary work Treatise on Toleration
Voltaire wrote pamphlets, novels, plays, letters, essays, and histories to do what? Criticize Christianity and encourage religious toleration
What did Voltaire's treatise remind government of? It reminded governments that "All men are brothers under God"
Voltaire championed deism. What is Deism? Religion's philosophy based on reasons and natural laws
Voltaire's real name Francois-Marie Arouet
Denis Diderot Time Frame/Country 18th Century France (lower middle class)
Major work (Denis) Encyclopedia/Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades
Denis was dedicated to new ideas. What did he edit? The 28 Volume collection of Knowledge
What did many of the articles do? Attack religious superstition and supported tolerance
What did Diderot advocate for? Social, Legal, and Political improvements that would lead to a more tolerant and humane society.
What did Diderot want to change? The general way of thinking
Adam Smith's Time Frame and Country 18th Century England (Scottish)
Major work (Adam Smith) The Wealth of Nations
Adam Smith's Beliefs Believed the state should not interfere with economic matters
Government's 3 roles according to Smith 1. Protecting society from invasion (army). 2. Defending citizens from injustices (police) 3. Building and maintaining certain public works that private individuals could not afford (infrastructure like roads and canals)
Cesare Beccaria Time Frame and Country 18th Century Italy
Cesare Major Work On Crimes and Punishments
What were Cesare's views on Punishments Punishments should not be exercises in brutality.
What did Cesare think about capital punishment. Should only be used in extreme cases
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Time Frame and Country 18th Century France (lower middle class)
Rousseau Major work The Social Contract
Rousseau's views Entire society agrees to be governed by its general will. Those who want to act on their own self interest must be forced to abide by the general will.
How does Rousseau believe Liberty is achieved? Liberty is achieved by everyone following what is best for the general will, because the general will represents what is best for the entire community
What did Jean think about educating children? Education should foster, not restrict, children's natural instincts
What did Rousseau think about Women? Women are naturally different. They should be taught obedience and nurturing skills essential to becoming a good wife and mother
Mary Wollstonecraft's Time Frame and Country 18th Century England
Mary's Major work A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Mary's beleifs Thinkers who wanted more freedom were oppressing women. Women have reason, so they are entitled to the same rights as men.
Thomas Hobbes's description of the life of man Solitary, Poor, Nasty, Brutish, and Short
Thomas Hobbes's laws of nature Justice, Equity, Modesty, and Mercy/Treat others as we would want them to treat us.
What do you call it when the multitude is so united in one person? A Commonwealth
What is the leader of a Commonwealth and his people called Leader is Sovereign and his people are his subject
Created by: Bsharah Hejazin