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Anatomy Study Guide

Lecture Guide

TermDefinition
Responsiveness Irritability and adaptability
Reproduction Creates new generations of similar organisms
Metabolism Chemical operations in the body
Anatomy Structure
Physiology Function
Cytology Studying cells
Microscopic Anatomy Requires magnification
Histology Studying tissues
Surface Anatomy General forms and markings
Regional Anatomy Specific regions
Systemic Anatomy Organ systems
Vital Function Physical and chemical processes responsible for characteristics of life
Organizational Levels atoms - molecules- macromolecules - organelles - cells - tissues - organs - organ systems - organism
Integumentary Body covering - Maintains temperature control and protects us from environmental hazards
Skeletal System Function Support, movement, and protection
Muscular System Function Support and movement
Nervous System Function Integration and coordination - Short term control
Endocrine System Integration and coordination - Long term control * Secrete hormones * Regulate metabolism
Cardiovascular System Function Transport blood, oxygen, nutrients, waste, and more
Lymphatic System Function Defend against infection and disease
Lymph Water and dissolved proteins
Digestive System Function Absorption and excretion
Respiratory System Function Air delivery
Urinary System Function Eliminate waste and excess water
Reproductive System Function Production of new organisms
Homeostasis Maintain stable internal environment aka - Body's thermostat
Receptor Senses a stimulus
Control Center Processes information that was presented by stimulus
Effector Responds to stimulus
Negative Feedback Loop Most feedback loops are this type, response opposes stimulus
Positive Feedback Loop Response reinforces stimulus
Disease Results from failure of homeostatic regulation
Anatomical Position Body standing up, hands at sides, palms facing forward
Supine Anatomical position if lying down but facing up
Prone Anatomical position if lying down but facing down
Anterior Front
Posterior Back
Ventral Belly side
Dorsal Back side
Cranial, Cephalic Head
Caudal Tail
Superior Above
Inferior Below
Medial Towards midline
Lateral Away from midline
Proximal Toward trunk
Distal Away from trunk
Superficial Close to surface
Deep Further from surface
Transverse Divides body into superior and inferior sections
Sagittal Divides body into right and left sections
Body Cavities Protect and cushion organs
Dorsal Cavity Surround the brain and spinal cord
Cranial Cavity Surrounds brain
Spinal Cavity Surrounds the spinal cord
Ventral Cavity Surround the other visceral organs and make up the viscera - Divided into the (superior) thoracic cavity and the (inferior) abdominopelvic cavity
Viscera Gut
Diaphragm Muscular wall separating ventral cavity into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Abdominopelvic Cavity Surrounds the heart
Pleural Cavities Surround lungs
Pleura Serous membrane
Messenteries Double sheets of peritoneum for support and stability
Radiological Methods Used to give detailed info about internal systems
X-ray 2D, used to observe bone
CT Scan 3D, soft tissue more visible
MRI Scan More detail than CT; colored image
Ultrasound Images Not as clear as CT Scan, safe for fetus
Cells Smallest living units in the human body
Atoms The smallest stable units of matter
Coronal Plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
Inguinal Region The anatomical location of the groin
Gluteal Region The anatomical location of the buttocks
Peritoneum Serous membrane lining the abdominopelvic cavity
Created by: cadencesneed