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Chap #1 Human Body

Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology by Elaine N. Marieb

Anatomy Anatomy = ana (apart) tomy (to cut). The science of the structure of living organisms. The study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts.
Gross Anatomy Studying large, easily observable structures (body, heart or bones)
Microscopic Anatomy Structures too small to be seen with the naked eye. (cells, tissues)
Physiology Physiology = physio (nature) ology (the study of). The science of the functioning or living organisms. The study of how the body and its parts work or function.
Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology Structure (anatomy) determines what functions (physiology) that can take place. A given function can only occur if the corresponding structure allows it.
LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION: Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organismal
Chemical Level Atoms combine to form molecules. (glucose) All the chemical reactions that occur in the body and release food energy require oxygen. Is the simplest level of the structural ladder.
Cellular Level Molecules combine to form cells
Tissue Level Consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function - Four basic types epithelial, connective, muscular and neural.
Organ (Organismal) Level Composed of two or more tissue types that perform a specific function.
Organ System (systemic) Level A group of organs that work together to accomplish a common function. (digestive system - esophagus, stomach and intestines.)
Organismal Level Organ systems combine to make up a living body. The highest level.
Atom The smallest part of an element, indivisible by ordinary chemical means.
Cell The basic biological unit of living organisms, containing a nucleus and a variety or organelles enclosed by a limiting membrane.
Tissue A group of similar cells specialized to perform a specific function, primary tissue types are epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissues.
Organ A part of the body formed of two or more tissues that performs a specified function. (Stomach) A group of tissues working together for a specific function form an organ.
Organ System A group of organs that work together to perform a common function, they can share organs with other systems, they function together to ensure the wellness of the organism, they act dependently on each other.
Organism An individual living thing. Survival depends on the ability to maintain one's boundaries, to move, respond to stimuli, to reproduce, metabolize, grow, digest food, and excrete wastes.
ORGAN SYSTEMS Integumentary System - SKINSkeletal SystemMuscular SystemNervous SystemEndocrine SystemCardiovascular SystemLymphatic SystemRespiratory SystemDigestive SystemUrinary System Reproductive System
Created by: Colorado Born



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