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Ch.6

Industrial Revolution/ Gilded Age

TermDefinition
Gilded Covered thinly with gold leaf or gold paint.
The Gilded Age Mark Twain's description of cities during the Industrial Age, characterized as a time of wealth but also of greed and corruption.
John D. Rockefeller Owner of Standard Oil Company; controlled most of petroleum production in the U.S. through horizontal integration.
Thomas Edison Invented the first useable light bulb, phonograph, motion picture camera and an electrical power distribution center. Created the first research and development lab at Menlo Park, New Jersey.
Alexander Graham Bell Inventor of the telephone (1871); started the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (ATT) with a group of partners.
Social Darwinism Idea from Herbert Spencer that introduced the notion of "Survival of the Fittest". Adapted Darwin's ideas from the "Origin of Species" to humans- society as a whole benefits from removing the unfit.
Transcontinental Railroad Connected the east coast to the west coast; expanded markets and improved communications; led to a "spiral of growth"
Patent Federal government gives an inventor exclusive rights to develop, use, sell an invention.
Bessemer Process The process for making steel faster and more cheaply by forcing hot air through molten iron. Developed by Henry Bessemer. Led to building skyscrapers and bridges.
Mass Production The production of a large number of products quickly and inexpensively.
Samuel Morse Perfected the telegraph; devised a code, The Morse Code, to transmit messages using short and long clicks.
Monopoly Complete control of a product or service in order to eliminate competition and set prices.
Cartel A loose association of businesses that make the same product, that agree to limit the supply of the product to keep the prices high.
Vertical Integration (Consolidation) Used by Carnegie; controlling every aspect of production from beginning to end.
Horizontal Integration (Consolidation) Used by Rockefeller; owning most or all businesses in an industry.
Trust Used by Robber Barons to avoid government regulations; companies assign stock to a board of trustees.
Sherman Antitrust Act Law that made it illegal to hinder or harm free trade (first law that would regulate industry); made trusts illegal.
Robber Barons Capitalists and tycoons known for being greedy and powerful who swindled the poor.
Captains of Industry Capitalists and tycoons who served the nation and provided jobs.
Andrew Carnegie Steel tycoon; wrote "Gospel of Wealth"; built libraries.
Sweatshop Dangerous, filthy, hot workplace where workers spent long hours for low pay.
Socialism Economic and political philosophy that favors public ownership of property and income; wealth should be distributed equally throughout society (tax wealthy give to poor)
Collective Bargaining Workers negotiate with owners as a group for better wages and working conditions.
Haymarket Riot Knights of Labor strike that ended in violence; caused Knights of Labor to fizzle out, because people turned away from radicalism.
Knights of Labor Labor organization that included all workers of any trade founded by Terrence V. Powderly.
American Federation of Labor Labor organization that only allowed local skilled workers; led by Samuel Gompers
Compromise of 1877 A deal struck with southern democrats to make Rutherford B. Hayes President and to end Reconstruction in the south.
Productivity The effectiveness of product effort, measured in terms of the rate of output per unit of input.
Edwin L. Drake Started an oil boom in Titusville, PA, that spread to Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and Texas when he successfully used a steam engine to drill for oil.
Oligopoly A market structure which is dominated by only a few large, profitable firms.
Economies of Scale A proportionate savings in costs gained by an increased level of production.
Gospel of Wealth Andrew Carnegie's belief that the wealthy should use their money to benefit society.
Piecework Work paid for according to the amount produced.
Division of Labor The assignment of different parts of a manufacturing process or task to different people in order to improve efficiency.
Open Shops A place of work where employees are not required to join a labor union.
Craft Union Union which included skilled workers from one or more trades.
Industrial Unions Union that includes all laborers- skilled and unskilled- in a specific industry.
Scab Strike breaker
Anarchist Someone who believes no government rules or laws to control people; absolute freedom for the individual.
Homestead Strike Strike of steel workers at Carnegie's Homestead plant after a plan to cut wages.
Pullman Strike A strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company that also led to an ARU railroad strike.
Wobbies Members of the Industrial Workers of the World; miners, lumberers, cannery and dock workers.
Samuel Gompers President of the AFL
George Westinghouse Came up with alternate current, which generated electricity more cheaply and could travel longer distances; airbrakes
Mary Harris Jones One of the most prominent women in the Labor Movement; supported "Great Strike of 1877"; later organized the United Mine Workers of America; led march of children to Pres. T. Roosevelt's house- led to child labor laws.
Granville Woods African-American inventor; incubator and telegraph communication with moving trains.
Industrial Revolution Historic period during which manual labor was replaced by machines.
Capitalism Economic system in which individuals, rather than government, own the factors of production and profits go to the owners.
Assembly Line Perfected by Henry Ford to build automobiles, this process allows unskilled workers to complete one step of the manufacturing process.
Capital Money; funds invested to make a profit.
Strike Workers refuse to work until demands are met.
Eugene V. Debs Leader of American Railway Union; went to prison; Supreme Court upheld his conviction, favoring business and making unions illegal (in re debs)
Northern and Western European Protestants Majority of immigrants who came to U.S. before 1870 (settled on family farms)
Southern and Eastern Europeans (Catholic and Jewish) Majority of immigrants who came to U.S. during late 19th century; poor, unskilled (settled in cities)
Skyscrapers Buildings greater than 10 stories; made possible because of Bessemer Process, elevators and central air systems.
Interchangeable Parts Identical components (pieces) that could be used in place of one another; led to assembly line and mass production.
Karl Benz Received patent for the first automobile.
Henry Ford Inventor who used the assembly line to mass produce automobiles.
Wright Brothers These men were responsible for first sustainable flight.
Causes of Rapid Industrialization 1. Steam revolution; 2. railroad; 3. technological innovations; 4. unskilled and skilled labor in abundance; 5. abundant capital; 6. entrepreneurs; 7. market growing with US population increase; 8. government willing to help; 9. abundant natural resources
Ways Railroad Revolutionized Business 1. Faster, more practical mode of transporting goods; 2. Lower cost of production; 3. creation of national markets; 4. model for big business; 5. stimulation of other industries.
Textiles Cloth or woven fabric
Karl Marx wrote "The Communist Manifesto"
Labor Union An organized association of workers, often in a trade or profession, formed to protect and further their rights and interests.
National Trade Workers Union First national labor union.
The Pinkertons A private security guard and detective agency, established by Alan Pinkerton in 1850.
Open Door Policy U.S. desire to have equal trading rights for all foreign powers in China.
Pendleton Act Law that set up a civil service commission to oversee the hiring of people for government jobs; only those who scored highest on an exam were given certain jobs, not political supporters.
Protective Tariff High tariff designed to protect American businesses from foreign competition.
Revenue Tariff Lower tariff that provided revenue to the federal government, not protection for business.
Munn V. Illinois Illinois passed a law that regulated prices railroads could charge to store grain being shipped. Supreme Court upheld the law by ruling that states could regulate a private business (located within a state) in the public interest.
Tools of Management scabs, P.R. campaign, Pinkertons, lockout, blacklisting, yellow-dog contracts, court injunctions, open shop
Tools of Labor boycotts, sympathy demonstrations, informational picketing, closed shops, organized strikes, "wildcat" strikes
Created by: GCUSHistory