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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 8.1

Functions of the nervous system Sensory input, integration, and motor output
Central Nervous System (CNS) The part of the nervous system that includes the brain and the spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Nerves of the PNS are found throughout the body. The PNS is divided further to afferent and efferent divisions.
Afferent Nerves Sensory nerves that carry information to the brain and spinal cord.
Efferent Nerves Motor Nerves that carry motor information from the CNS to effectors.
Neurons Nerve cells that generate and transmit nerve signals.
Neuroglia Cells that nourish and support neurons.
Dendrites Extensions that branch off of the cell body of a neuron that transmit a signal toward the cell body.
Axon A long extension that conducts signals away from a neuron.
Axon terminal The end of an axon that is branched.
Nerve Tract A bundle of axons that are grouped together and run parallel to each other.
Sensory Neurons Take nerve signals from sensory receptors to the CNS.
Interneurons Occur only in the CNS. These are the most common type of neuron.
Motor Neurons Take nerve signals from the CNS to muscles, organs, and glands.
Resting Potential The energy stored within a neuron that can be used to conduct a signal.
Action Potential The process of conduction of a signal.
Stimulus Something that stimulates a nerve to conduct a signal.
Refractory Period The time needed to pump sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell. During this time the neuron is unable to conduct a signal.
Synapse The close space between an axon terminal and the next neuron.
Created by: Mr.Klein
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