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Nutriton & Dietary


Nutrients Food elements, e.g. carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamin, minerals, and water necessary for cells to function.
Metabolism Process of using nutrients as a source of energy for cellular function and development.
Catabolism Destructive process of breaking down nutrients to release their energy.
Anabolism Constructive process of using nutrient energy to build and develop cells and tissues.
Enrichment Replacing nutritional elements lost during the processing of food
Fortification Process of adding nutrients in higher amounts than naturally provided or others generally not present.
HDL Good fat: Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, and high-density lipoproteins
LDL Bad fat: Cholesterol, saturated fat, low-density lipoprotein
Protein Amino acid links comprising carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Energy: 4 kilocalories/g. Essential for growth, supplying material for tissue building.
Vitamins Organic substances not synthesized by the body that are needed in small quantities. Regulate the synthesis of many body compounds, e.g. bones, glands, nerves, blood, by facilitating enzyme activity. They serve as catalysts to facilitate normal metabolism.
A Retinoic acid—Important for sight and skin integrity.
D Cholecaciferol—Enhances absorption of calcium.
K Menadione—Essential for coagulation and bone development.
Water Soluble Can be dissolved in water but cannot be stored in the body—a continuous dietary supply is necessary.
Minerals Inorganic earth elements. Fluid pressure. Muscular activity. Nerve responses
Calcium (Ca) Bones/teeth, coagulation.
Iodine (I) Thyroxine synthesis.
Zinc (Z) Enzymatic activity, taste sensitivity.
Water Solvent for body constituents and as a medium for all chemical changes in the body. Thermal regulation. Lubrication.
Lacto-Ovo Plant foods are supplemented with dairy products and eggs. Most common type of vegetarian diet.
Vegan Animal food sources (including both eggs and dairy products) are completely excluded.
Honey Should not be given because of the potential for botulism, because honey contains botulism spores.
Edentulous Loss of teeth
Anorexia Nervosa An intense fear of becoming obese that does not lessen as weight loss progresses. There is a disturbance of body image, such as claiming to feel fat even when emaciated.
Bulimia This condition is characterized by binge eating followed by purging through self-induced vomiting and abusive use of laxatives.
Diabetes Mellitus Is a disorder related to carbohydrate metabolism. Primarily is due to a lack of insulin.
Type 1A Develops during childhood and the young adult years.
Type 1B Develops in older individuals.
Type 2 Non–insulin-dependent diabetes melitus
Pica An abnormal craving for and eating of substances
Carbohydrates Primary source of energy. Composition: Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Energy: one gram yields 4 kilocalories.
Fat Concentrated source of energy; furnish essential
Saturated High hydrogen concentrated fatty acids primarily from animals. Give satiety value; absorption of vitamins A, D, E, K.
Fat Soluble Can be dissolved in dietary fat and stored in the body.
Calorie Amount of energy needed to heat 1 kg
Biological Value* A measure of the proportion of absorbed protein from a food which becomes incorporated into the proteins of the organism's body
Polyunsaturated* An organic compound, especially a fat or oil molecule Usually of plant origin, are regarded as healthier in the diet than saturated fats.
Created by: itsdelis