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Structures of Body

Massage Therapy; Anatomy and Physiology Review

Tissue is... a collection of specialized cells that perform a special function.
Histology is... the study of tissue. 'Histo' means "tissue"; 'ology' means, "the study of".
The primary tissues of the body are... epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissues.
An organ is... a collection of specialized tissues. An organ has specific functions, but it does not act independently of other organs.
Organs make up systems. The body has... 10 general systems. Each system is made up of organs that collectively perform specific functions.
The 10 general systems of the body are... Musculoskeletal, nervous, cardiovascular, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, urinary, endocrine, reproductive, and integumentary.
Musculoskeletal system (can be classified separately as the skeletal, articular [joints], and muscular systems) Associated organs are bones, ligaments, skeletal muscles, tendons, and joints.
Nervous system Associated organs are brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs.
Cardiovascular system Associated organs are heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Lymphatic system Associated organs are lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and thymus gland.
Digestive system Associated organs are mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Respiratory system Associated organs are nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, diaphragm, and pharynx.
Urinary system Associated organs are kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Endocrine system Associated organs are endocrine glands: Hypothalamus, hypophysis (pituitary), thyroid, thymus, parathyroid, pineal, adrenal, pancreas, and gonads (ovary or testis).
Reproductive system Associated organs for female: Ovaries, uterine tubes (oviducts), uterus, and vagina. Associated organs for males: Testes, penis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and spermatic ducts.
Integumentary system Associated organs are skin, hair, nails, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, and breasts.
The skeletal system consists of three types of tissue: bone, cartilage, and ligaments.
Bone is... a dense connective tissue that is composed primarily of calcium and phosphate; os-, ossa-, oste-, and osteo- are all combining forms that mean "bone."
The human skeleton is composed of approximately... 206 bones.
Articulations are... joints at which two or more bones meet.
The articular system... concerns all of the anatomic and function aspects of the joints.
Joints are... places where bones come together, where limbs are attached, and where the motion of the skeletal system occurs. Joints allow motion of the musculoskeletal system; they bear weight and hold the skeleton together.
The two main types of cartilage are... hyaline and fibrocartilage.
Hyaline cartilage is... a pearly, bluish color ('hyaline' means "glass"); it is very elastic, cushiony, and slippery, and makes up the articular surfaces of the joints and is between the ribs, at the nose, larynx, and trachea, and in the fetal skeleton.
Fibrocartilage is... white; it is elastic, flexible, and tough, and is interarticular; it is found in joints such as the knee.
Connecting fibrocartilage is... only slightly mobile. It is found between the vertebrae (referred to as disks) and between the pubic bones (the symphysis pubis).
Ligaments are... made of white fibrous tissue. They are pliant, flexible, strong, and tough.
Bursae are... closed sacs or saclike structures (bursa) that usually are found close to joint cavities.
The function of a bursa is to... lubricate an area between skin, tendons, ligaments, or other structures and bones where friction would otherwise develop.
The muscular system is made up of contractile tissues. The three types of muscle tissue are... cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle. Muscle tissue makes up the muscles, which are individual organs; these muscles give the body shape and produce movement.
Muscle function is determined by... the shape and location of the muscle.
The terms "muscle tone" and "motor tone" relate to... Muscle tone refers to the density and pliability of all fluid, fibers, and connective tissue of the muscle. The nervous system controls how long or short a muscle is, by regulating the degree of muscle fiber contraction, called motor tone.
Most muscles have two ends... proximal and distal, which are attached to other structures, and a belly.
Muscles cause and permit motion through the actions of... contraction and relaxation.
13 types of joint movements are... Extension, flexion, abduction, adduction, supination, pronation, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, eversion, inversion, protraction, retraction, and rotation.
Extension means... to increase the angle of a joint.
Flexion means... to decrease the angle of a joint.
Abduction means... To move away from the midline.
Adduction means... To move toward the midline.
Supination means... To turn the palm or foot upward.
Pronation means... To turn the palm or foot downward.
rotation means... To raise the foot, pulling the toes toward the shin.
Plantar flexion means... To lower the foot, pointing the toes away from the shin.
Eversion means... To turn outward.
Inversion means... To turn inward.
Protraction means... To move a part of the body forward.
Retraction means... To move a part of the body backward.
Rotation means... To revolve a bone around its axis.
Seven terms for describing muscle by movement are... Adductor, abductor, flexor, extensor, levator, depressor, and tensor.
Adductor is a... muscle that moves a part toward the midline.
Abductor is a... muscle that moves a part away from the midline.
Flexor is a... muscle that bends a part.
Extensor is a... muscle that straightens a part.
Levator is a... muscle that raises a part.
Depressor is a... muscle that lowers a part.
Tensor is a... muscle that tightens a part.
Contraction refers to... a reduction in size or shortening of a muscle. When one muscle contracts, another, opposite muscle is stretched and is put in a state of tension.
Relaxation occurs when... tension is reduced, which allows the muscle to return to its normal resting length.
Muscles work in pairs of agonists and antagonists... Agonists are muscles that are responsible for the primary desired movement. Antagonists are the muscles that oppose the action of the agonist and lengthen and control the movement produced by the agonist.
Synergists are... muscles that assist the agonists by holding a part of the body steady, thereby providing leverage. Synergists sometimes produce the same action as the primary mover.
The agonist-antagonist-synergist relationship permits... the skeletal muscles to work in a purposeful manner and gives fluidity to motion. This fluid movement is called coordination.
Skeletal muscle is... usually attached to two or more bony points. Attachments may be a tendon, aponeurosis, or fleshy insertion.
Tendons are... made of collagen fibers with occasional flattened fibroblasts. They are virtually invariable in length.
Tendons take the form of... cords or strips consisting of bundles of collagen, mainly parallel, and are striated in appearance.
An aponeurosis is... a very flattened tendon (neurosis because it is white, like nervous tissue).
A fleshy insertion is... muscle joined to bone without the intervention of a collagenous tendon or aponeurosis.
Proximal muscle attachments are also called... origins, and are closer to the midline and the body center.
Distal attachments are also called... insertions.
Seven muscle fiber arrangements are... Strap, parallel, convergent, fusiform, circular, unipennate, and bipennate.
The three muscle actions are... concentric (shortening) action, eccentric (elongating/lengthening) action, and isometric (static/no movement) action.
Identify muscle names by: direction of muscle fibers, named in reference to midline of body; relative size of muscle; location of muscle, named in reference to the bone it is located near; number of origins; shape of muscle; action of muscle. Direction: rectus (parallel, straight), transverse (right angle), oblique (slanting, not a right angle). Size: major (largest), minor (smallest), longus (long), brevis (short). # of origins: bi-, tri-, quad- Locaiton: frontalis, abdominis
Identify muscle names by: number of origins; shape of muscle; action of muscle. Number of origins: bi-, tri-, quad-. Shape of muscle: deltoid--triangular; trapezius--trapezoid Action of muscle: adductor (toward midline), abductor (away from midline) , extensor (> angle between 2 bones), flexor (<angle between 2 bones)
The nervous system is the most complex system in the body, and contains 3 systems, the... Central nervous system (CNS) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
The CNS is the center (central) of all nervous control. It consists of... the brain and spinal cord, which are located in the dorsal cavity (cranial vertebral)
The PNS is composed of cranial and spinal nerves. The term nerve refers to... a bundle of nerve fibers consisting of individual nerve cells outside the spinal cord or brain.
The PNS consists of... the nerves that carry impulses between the CNS and muscles, glands, skin, and other organs located outside (peripheral) the CNS.
The ANS is the part of the peripheral nervous system that... exerts nervous control over smooth muscle, heart muscle, and glands. It is an automatic, or self-governing (self [auto], governing [nomic], system. It is also called the involuntary system.
The ANS is divided into two parts: the sympathetic (Spiderman, fight-or-flight) controls the body's response to feelings (sympathy). Parasympathetic (Peter Parker, normalizing).
The two types of nerve cells are... the sensory neurons and the motor neurons. Individual nerve cells are called neurons.
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves. Many of the spinal nerves are located in groups called... somatic nerve plexuses. The term somatic refers to the body wall; thus, these nerve plexuses contain nerves that are involved with the wall of the body, as opposed to organs within the body.
A plexus is... a network of intertwined (plexus) nerves.
The major plexuses of spinal nerves are... cervical plexus, brachial plexus, lumbar plexus, and sacral plexus.
Each muscle fiber is surrounded by a fine sheath of collagenic connective tissue called... the endomysium.
Several muscle fibers are wrapped together in side-by-side bundles, called... fascicles.
Fascicles are wrapped in a collagenic sheath called... the perimysium.
The fascicles are bound together with more dense, fibrous connective tissue called... the epimysium.
The epimysium surrounds... the entire muscle.
External to the perimysium is the... deep fascia, an even coarser sheet of fibrous connective tissue that binds muscles into functional groups.
The deep fascia forms partitions between muscle groups called... intermuscular septa.
Near the ends of muscles, the actual muscle fiber ends, but the connective tissue continues and converges to become... the tendons and aponeuroses that join muscles to bones or other connective tissue structures.
Tendons and aponeuroses are the continuation of the... endomysium, perimysium, and epimysium, minus the muscle fibers, which attach muscle to bone.
The point where the muscle fiber ends and the tendon begins is called the... musculotendinous junction.
The difference between a tendon and an aponeurosis is... one of shape. A tendon by definition is round and cordlike; an aponeurosis is a broad, flat sheet.
The tendon or aponeurosis blends and wraps into the connective tissue coverings and structure, including... ligaments and other tendons, or into a seam of fibrous connective tissue called a raphe, at the attachment site.
Muscle attachments do not stick on bone but interweave with... the periosteum around the bone such that the muscles can lift the bone when they contract.
Connective tissue attaches extensively to and into... muscles.
The superficial fascia forms... adipose (fatty) tissue, which allows for the storage of fat and also aids in the conservation of body heat.
Deep fascia ensheaths and preserves the... characteristic contour of the extremities and promotes circulation in the veins and lymphatic vessels.
The ensheathing layer of deep fascia, as well as intermuscular septa and interosseous membranes provides... vast surface areas for muscular attachment.
Fascia has restraining mechanisms in the form of... retention bands and fibrous pulleys, thereby assisting in the coordination of movement.
In the places connective tissue has a loose texture, it allows movement between... adjacent structures and, by the formation of bursal sacs, reduces the effects of pressure and friction.
Fascia is able to contract in a smooth, muscle-like manner because of... the presence of myofibroblasts.
Connective tissue provides pathways for... blood and lymphatic vessels and structures.
Many of the neural structures in fascia are... sensory.
Fascia has the ability to convert mechanical force into... neurochemical signals forming a body-wide communication network.
The mesh of loose connective tissue contains the tissue fluid and provides an essential medium through which the cellular elements of other tissues come into contact with... blood and lymph.
Connective tissue has a nutritive function and contains... about a quarter of all body fluid.
Chemical (nutritional) factors influence the strength of... connective tissue coverings of muscles and bones.
Because of its fibroblastic activity, connective tissue aids in the repair of... injuries by generating collagenous fibers, creating scar tissue.
Fascia is a major location of... inflammatory processes.
Fluids and infectious processes often travel along... fascial planes.
A histiocyte is a type of immune cell that ingests forgein substances in an effort to... protect the body from infection.
Histiocytes remove... cell debris and foreign material. The histiocytes of connective tissue are part of a defense mechanism against bacterial invasion by their phagocytic activity.
Connective tissue represents an important neutralizer or detoxifier to... endogenous toxins (those produced in the body from physiologic processes) and exogenous toxins (from outside the body).
The mechanical barrier of fascia has defensive functions in cases of... infectious pathogen invasion.
Fascia is inolved deeply in almost all of the fundamental processes of the... structure, function, and metabolism of the body.
Because muscle and fascia are anatomically inseparable, fascia moves during... muscular activities acting on bone, joints, ligaments, and tendons.
Sensory receptors of the nervous system exist in... fascia and relate to proprioception and pain reception.
Proprioception is kinesthetic sense. Sensory receptors receive information about... position, rate of movement, contraction, tension, and stretch of tissues through distortion of and pressure on the sensory receptor.
After proprioceptive sensory information is processed in the... CNS, motor impulses carry the response message back to the muscles. The muscles then contract or relax to restore or change posture, movement, or position.
Proprioception maintains... motor tone in muscle.
The pain-spasm-pain cycle uses... proprioception as well as reflexes to maintain the feedback loop.
A reflex is... an involuntary body response to a stimulus.
The function of the nervous system is to... receive impressions from the external environment, organize the information, and provide appropriate responses.
The nervous systems allows the body to... detect changes in and respond to outside influences.
Outside information enters the nervous system through... nerve endings in the skin and in special sense organs. These nerve endings are referred to as receptors.
Nerve endings in the skin are sensitive to... pain, touch, pressure, vibration, and temperature.
Special sense nerve endings are responsible for... taste, smell, vision, hearing, and sense of position and movement.
Information is transferred from one nerve to another by chemicals called... neurotransmitters.
The nervous system and neurotransmitters, along with the endocrine system, also maintain... homeostasis.
Neuron is a nerve cell that is... the basic building block of the nervous system.
There are three types of glial (neuroglial) cells in the CNS: Astrocytes maintain an appropriate chemical environment for neuronal signaling. Oligodendrocytes make myelin around only some axons. In the PNS Schwan cells perform the function. Microglial cells remove cellular debris from sites of injury/cell turnover
Afferent nerves are... nerves that carry (ferent) messages to (af-, variation of ad-) the CNS; also known as sensory nerves because they pick up and transmit sensation (sen).
Efferent nerves are... nerves that carry (ferent) messages away from (ef-, variation of ex-) the brain, resulting in motion (motor). They are also known as motor nerves.
Cranial nerves are the... 12 pairs of nerves that arise from the brainstem in the cranium or skull (cranial).
Spinal nerves are the... 31 pairs of nerves that branch off the spinal cord.
A ganglion is a mass of... nerve cell bodies located outside the CNS.
Dermatomes are the... distribution of spinal nerve innervations.
The cardiovascular system consists of three parts: the heart, blood, and blood vessels.
The heart is a... four-chambered pump.
Arteries are... tubes (vessels) that deliver oxygenated blood to the body. They carry blood under pressure and are located relatively deep within the body.
Veins are... vessels that return blood to the heart. They are located in more superficial areas.
Veins have a valve system that prevents... the backflow of blood. Breakdown of a valve may result in a varicose vein.
Capillaries are very small, thin (usually one-cell-thick) vessels that allow... for the exchange of blood gases and nutrients.
blood vessels... vasoconstrict, or become smaller inside, and vasodilate, or become large inside.
Blood pressure is... a measurement of the pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the walls of the arteries, veins, and heart chambers.
High blood pressure is called... Hypertension.
Low blood pressure is called... Hypotension.
Blood is composed of... a clear, yellow fluid called plasma, blood cells, and platelets.
The main function of blood is to... transport oxygen and nutrients to the cells and remove carbon dioxide and other waste products.
The lymphatic system is responsible for several functions: It returns vital substances to the bloodstream from the tissues of the body. It drains and maintains fluid from body tissues. It defends against disease-producing substances. It helps absorb fats from the digestive system.
The lymphatic system is a network of... channels and nodes in which a substance called lymph travels.
Lymph is a clear, watery fluid similar to plasma. The system collects and drains fluid from... around tissue cells from different areas of the body and carries it through the lymphatic channels back to the venous system. there, it is deposited, mixed with venous blood, and recirculated.
Lymph nodes are... small bodies that are present in the path of the lymph channels and that act as filters from lymph before it returns to the bloodstream.
The main locations of the more superficial lymph nodes are... the cervical area, the axillary region, and the groin or inguinal area.Plexuses of lymph channels are found through the body
Plexuses of lymph channels are found throughout the body: Mammary plexus: Lymphatic vessels around the breasts. Palmar plexus: Lymphatic vessels in the palm of the hand. Plantar plexus: Lymphatic vessels in the sole of the foot.
Immunity is... the body's ability to resist organisms or toxins that tend to damage its tissues and organs.
Acquired immunity: Resistance (immunity) to a particular disease developed by people who have acquired the disease.
Acquired immunodeficiency: A group of symptoms (syndrome) caused by the transmission (acquired) of a virus that causes a breakdown (deficiency) in the immune system (AIDS).
Active immunity: resistance (immunity) resulting from antibodies the body has produced.
Allergy: A state of hypersensitivity to a particular substance; the immune system overreacts (over [hyper-], reacts [sensitive]) t foreign substances, and physical changes occur.
Antibody: An immune protein produced by the body in response to a specific antigen.
Antigen: A substance that stimulates the immune response; the body recognizes it as foreign.
Susceptible: An individual who is capable (-ible) of acquiring (suscept-) a particular disease).
The respiratory system supplies... oxygen to and removes carbon dioxide from the cells of the body.
respiration is divided into two phases, external and internal... External respiration involves the absorption of oxygen from the air by the lungs and the transport of carbon dioxide from the lungs back into the air. Internal respiration involves the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide with the cells of the body.
The wavelike contraction of the smooth muscles of the digestive tube is called... peristalsis.
The endocrine system is composed of... glands that produce hormones, which are secreted directly into the bloodstream to stimulate cells in a specific way, to stimulate a body function, or to inhibit a body function.
The endocrine system serves as... control and regulation system for the body.
The urinary system consists of... two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and one urethra.
The kidneys maintain homeostasis by... filtering waste products from the blood and keeping the proper quantities of water and nutrients in the blood.
Urine passes out of... the kidneys and down through the ureters to the bladder for storage.
The bladder expels urine through the... urethra.
Important functions of the urinary system include: Conservation of water. Maintenance of the normal concentration of electrolytes. Regulation of the acid-base balance. Regulation of blood pressure. Activation of vitamin D.
The kidneys filter and eliminate most waste. On average, the kidneys filter about... 100 liters of blood, reabsorbing 99 liters of filtrate and leaving about 1 liter of urine.
The male reproductive system consists of... the testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra, penis, and scrotum.
The female reproductive system consists of... two ovaries, two fallopian tubes, a uterus, and a vagina; the external genitalia and the mammary glands.
The integumentary system consists of... the skin and its appendages, including the hair and nails.
Skin is composed of three layers of tissue: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous tissue.
The epidermis, the outside layer of skin, contains many layers of tissue and melanocytes, the cells that give skin color.
The dermis, or dermal layer, lies directly under the epidermis and often is called "the true skin." It is made of connective tissue.
Embedded in the dermis are the... blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, hair follicles, and sweat glands.
Subcutaneous tissue attaches... the dermis to the underlying structures. It acts as insulation for the body.
The functions of the skin include... protection; control and maintenance of body temperature; detection of the sensations of touch, temperature, pain, and pressure; secretion of sweat and sebum; production of vitamin D when the skin is exposed to the sun.
Sebaceous glands are located... in the skin. They secrete an oily substance called sebum, which gives the skin and hair a glossy appearance. Other sebaceous glands are located at the corners of the mouth (cold sores) and around the external sex organs (herpes).
Sudoriferous glands are... sweat glands and are found in most areas of the body. They function to cool the body through evaporation of perspiration (sweat).
The most abundant type of sweat gland is.. the eccrine gland. The palms of the hands and the soles of the feet contain large numbers of these glands.
The aprocrine sweat gland is.. connected to hair follicles in the armpits and the pubic area and is found at the navel and nipples. Secretions from these sweat glands are a response to sexual stimulation. They function to lubricate the genital area, and produce a mild odor for arousal.
Created by: kasezula