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A&P 2 CH 18

Dr. Cutler SU-Endocrine 1

pancreas produces enzymes that are ducted into the small intestine (exocrine gland)
these are on the cells of the pancreas that produce a pancreatic hormone islets is Langerhans (endocrine)
the pancreas maintains homeostasis of this blood glucose (endocrine)
long term hyperglycemia is responsible for most of the complications in diabetes mellitus (type II)
pancreas has TWO types of cells in each islet alpha and beta
alpha cells glucagon-when sugar is needed in the blood
beta cells insulin-when sugar is too high in the blood
delta cells secrete somatostatin-growth hormone
alpha cells are on the outside
beta cells are on the inside-cell core
normal blood sugar 90mg/100ml
another word for a hormone can be ligands
intercellular communication: direct 2 cells function as one unit
intercellular communication: paracrine cells in the same tissue talking: most common
endocrine messages from far away: target cells
synaptic communication nerve to: nerve, muscle, or gland
how do hormones work alter the target cell: effects can be slow to appear but can last for days,
up regulation super sensitized
down regulation desensitized
amino acid derivatives (aad, looks like mad with mike) tyrosine and tryptophan (mike tyson tripped a fan)
peptide hormones hypothalamus, heart, digestive system (a peppy cheerleader is now hypo, but eats the wrong thing and dies causing her hearts to stop)
lipid derivatives eicosanoids and steroids (the little geico, took steroids which made him fat and gain weight
what does a enzyme to helps and then leaves
amino acids are building blocks protiens
tyrosine makes thyroid hormon made in the thyroid gland, dopamine, and CATecholamines noraepi, and epic,
where does mike tyson (tyrosine) keep his cats (catecholamines) in the adrenal medulla
tryptophan makes melaney and sara (melatonin by the spinal gland and serotonin by the brain and guts)
peptide hormones (mostly are secreted by the pituitary gland) (most often the answer is a peptide hormone) all hormones secreted by the hypothalamus, heart, digestive tract, pancreas, and thymus gland
anti-diuretic hormone ADH
oxytocin type of peptide hormone
growth hormone GH
prolactin PL
adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH
thyroid stimulating hormone TSH
luteinizing hormone LH
follicle stimulating hormone FSH
Lipid; Eicosaniods( will deny you insurance if) you have inflammation, allergies, or fevers that cause pain.
prostaglandins sounds like prostate, grows with inflamed pain, aspirin is used but will thin platelets.
leukotrienes this word sounds like white, and three, this medicine is used to tamp down asthma.
lipid derivatives steroids (cholesterol) parts: 1. cortex of adrenal glands (salt, sugar, sex-min, glu, gon). 2. kidneys (calcitriol) 3. reproductive organs (gonads) estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone.
steroid hormones (SH) lipid soluble, made of cholesterol, protein carriers that enter nucleus, and tell DNA to make a protein (uses direct gene activation), slower, does NOT amplify
6 steroid hormones ADRENAL GLAND(cortex): aldosterone, cortisol, androgens TESTES: testosterone OVARIERS: estrogen and progesterone
DGA: direct gene activation of steroid hormones forms what a hormone receptor complex (HRC) ending product is a protein
non steroid hormones (NSH) water soluble, protein receptors in the plasma membrane, uses the 2nd messenger system, fast acting, DOES causes amplification.
1st messenger system of NSH NSH binds to receptor to form HRC called first messenger, then G protiens cause ADENYLATE CYCLASE to become active,
2nd messenger system cAMP which converts inactive protein kinase to active.
protein kinase adds phosphate from an ATP creating a PHOSPHORYLATED protein
what causes the 2nd messenger to stop the reaction phosphodiesterase: eats up the excess cAMP
thyroid gland makes C cells- Calcitonin (lowers plasma)
thyroid gland secretions influence metabolic rate, protien synthesis and Ca++ balance
Largest endocrine gland is the thyroid gland
thyroid gland is make up of follicles
thyroid lobes are connected by isthmus
follicles formed by epithelial cells produce thyroglobulin
T3 + T4 are made from iodine and tyrosine second messenger hormones
T3 + T4 do this in almost every cell influence metabolic rate
calcitonin make parafollicular C cells
this vitamin works with PTH to elevate blood calcium concentrate in the thyroid vitamin D
parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone
CT lowers blood calcium using osteoblast
PTH raises blood calcium using osteoclast
hypothalamus produces releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones
IH + RH tell what gland what to do anterior pituitary gland
oxytocin and ADH are made and stored where posterior pituitary gland
the hypothalamus oversees the automatic nervous system and stimulates what
hypothalamus talks to both what lobes of the pituitary
hypothalamus is a master gland that makes most of the releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones
infundibulum stalk connecting hypothalamus to the pituitary gland
pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone in the skull
anterior lobe adenohypophysis, granular tissue…etc
posterior lobe neurohypophysis, neurological tissues, stored hormones made in the hypothalamus.
releasing hormones (5) GHRH, somatostatin, TRH, CRH, GRH, VIP
nurohormonal control concentrated, small batches of neurohormones can be manufactured by hypothalamus
melanocyte-stimulating hormone MSH
hormone producing cells are HPC
how many major hormones are made in the anterior pituitary 7
Created by: cambridgedavis



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