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Praxis PLT 5-9

TermDefinition
Bandura Social Learning Theory: People learn from one another by observation, imitation, and modeling.
Bruner Constructivist Theory: Learners construct new ideas/concepts based on their current/past knowledge.
Dewey Students learn through the hands-on approach
Piaget Cognitive Theory: Use of prior knowledge to understand how the world operates. When what we don't doesn't work, we try something else (accommodation). More self-initiated Schema Theory: Connect old to new experiences. Background knowledge
Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development / Cognitive Development Theory: ZPD is what a student can do with help (this requires social interaction). Trying to get student do to things on their own, so you scaffold them until they can do it by themselves.
Kohlberg 6 Stages of Moral Development: How one decides how to respond to a moral dilemma
Bloom Taxonomy: Help with question phrasing. Knowledge - Understanding - Applying - Analyzing - Evaluating - Creating
Metacognition Awareness of one's own thought process
Schema Background knowledge
Transfer Learning in one context and relating it to another context
Self-Efficacy One's belief to succeed
Self-Regulation Behavior management to monitor your thoughts, actions, and feelings to reach a goal.
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) What you can do with the help of someone
Classical Conditioning Pavlov: Involuntary responses that result from experiences that occur before the response
Operant Conditioning Skinner: Changing voluntary behaviors. (Reinforcement vs. Punishment)
Cognitive Development Stages (Piaget) Sensorimotor (0-2): Ability to form a mental representation (schema) of an object. Preoperational (2-7): Symbolic Concrete Operational (7-11): Marks beginning of operational thought Formal Operational: (11+): Think abstractly and test hypotheses
Physical Development Stages (Erikson) Infant (0-18m): Oral sensory Toddler (18m-2): Gain self-esteem, power of NO Preschooler (3-5): Initiate activities and develop conscience School-Age (6-12): Sense of self-worth Adolescent (12-18): Integrate social roles into self-image / peer pressure
Social Development Stages (Erikson) Infant: Trust vs. Mistrust Toddler: Self-control vs. Self-doubt Preschooler: Initiative vs. Guilt School-Age: Industry (how things work/understand/organize) vs. Inferiority Adolescence: Identity vs. Confusion
Moral Development Stages (Kohlberg) 1 (Pre-conventional Morality): 1 (Obedience and punishment) 2 (Self-Interest) 2 (Conventional Morality): 3 (Interpersonal - social) 4 (Authority - Obeying) 3 (Post-Convential Morality): 5 (Social contract - balance) 6 (Universal ethics)
Variables that affect student learning and performance Gender, culture, socioeconomic status, learning style, prior knowledge and experiences, motivation, self-confidence, self-esteem, cognitive development, maturity, and language
Areas of exceptionality Cognitive, auditory, visual, motor/physical, speech/language, and behavioral
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 1990 - Prohibits discrimination based on disabilities
Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) Ensures that students with disabilities receive free public education
Section 504, Rehabilitation Act Prohibits discrimination of individuals with disabilities in the public school setting and are eligible for special education and related services to help them succeed
Accommodations for students with exceptionalities Presentation, setting, timing/scheduling, and response. Don't change what the student learns, but how the student learns.
Thorndike Law of Effect: Behavior followed by pleasant consequences will be repeated. Not pleaseant will be stopped.
Watson Classical Conditioning: 2 stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response. Bully at school - Associate fear and school
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs: The needs that motivate human behavior. Physiological (food, shelter) - Safety - Love and belonging - Esteem - Self-Actualization
Attribution Features or characteristics of someone
Extrinsic Motivation Behavior driven by money, fame, grades, etc.
Intrinsic Motivation Behavior that you do for yourself (read a book because you want to learn about the material, you're not forced to)
Strategies for helping students develop self-motivation Assigning valuable tasks, providing frequent positive feedback, student choice in activities, and de-emphasizing grades
Gardner Multiple Intelligences: Musical-rhythmic and harmonic. Visual-spatial. Verbal-linguistic. Logical-mathematical. Bodily-kinesthetic. Interpersonal. Intrapersonal. Naturalistic.
Cultural Expectations Close talking vs. Distant talking. Nonverbals. Eye contact. Greeting a person (handshake, hug, kiss on cheek). Don't want to speak in front of class. Language.
Basic Concepts of Cognitivism Schema, information processing, and mapping
Basic Concepts of Social Learning Theory Modeling, reciprocal determinism, and vicarious learning (hearing or observation)
Basic Concepts of Constructivism Learning as experience, problem-based learning, ZPD, scaffolding, and inquiry/discovery learning
Basic Concepts of Behaviorism Conditioning, intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, reinforcement, and punishment
Affective Domain Figuring out and understanding how people learn
Psychomotor Domain Use of motor skills (movement and coordination)
Cognitive Domain How one thinks
Variety of Resources Electronics, library collection books, videos, DVDs, artifacts, models, manipulatives, guest speakers, community members, etc
Thematic Instruction Interdisciplinary instruction based around a wide-theme (Communities, etc)
Components of Thematic Units Selecting a theme, designing integrated learning activities, selecting resources, and designing assessments
Components of Interdisciplinary Units Collaborating, generating applicable topics, developing and integrative framework, planning instruction for each discipline, designing integrative assessment, and recognizes their role in collaborating with instructional partners in instructional planning
Instructional Planning Partners Special education teachers, library media specialists, teachers of the gifted and talented, IEP team members, and paraeducators (teacher-aide)
Cognitive processes associated with learning Critical thinking, creative thinking, questioning, inductive and deductive reasoning, problem solving, planning, memory, and recall
Direct Instruction Strategies Explicit teaching, drill and practice, lecture, demonstrations, and guides for reading, listening, and viewing
Indirect Instruction Strategies Problem solving, inquiry, case studies, concept mapping, reading for meaning, and cloze procedures (fill in blank with reading passage)
Independent Instruction Strategies Learning contracts, research projects, learning centers, computer mediated instruction, and distance learning
Experiential and Virtual Instruction Strategies Field trips, experiments, simulations, role play, games, and observations
Interactive Instruction Strategies Brainstorming, cooperative learning groups, interviews, discussions, peer practice, and debates
Complex cognitive processes Concept learning, problem solving, metacognition, critical thinking, and transfer
Instructional activities specific to developing complex cognitive processes Distinguishing fact from opinion, comparing and contrasting, detecting bias, predicting, categorizing, analyzing, sequencing, summarizing, inferring, decision making, evaluating, synthesizing, and generalizing
Strategies to support student learning Modeling, developing self-regulating skills, scaffolding, differentiating instruction, guided practice, and coaching
Ways to support students' self-regulatory skills Setting goals managing time, organizing information, monitoring progress, reflecting outcomes, establishing a productive work environment, and understands the design of different group configurations for learning
Group configurations Whole class, small group, independent learning, one on one, and pair/share
Cooperative Learning Small groups with a variety of ability levels
Collaborative Learning Groups to discuss and talk through the activities to help them out
Heterogeneous Grouping Mixture of all ability levels
Homogeneous Grouping One ability level
Consider memory when planning instruction Curiosity, spark some interest in them. Having them repeat things. Sit and gets (don't really work). Connect words or concept to a dance move or something like that.
Effective Questioning Components Wait time, helping students articulate their ideas, respecting students' answers, handling incorrect answers, encouraging participation, establishing a non-critical classroom environment, promoting active listening, and varying the types of questions
Strategies that support students in articulating their ideas Verbal and nonverbal prompting, reinstatement, reflective listening statements, and wait time
Encouraging higher levels of thinking Reflect, challenge assumptions, find relationships, determine relevancy and validity of information, design alternate solutions, draw conclusions, and transfer knowledge
Strategies for promoting a safe open forum for discussion Engaging all learners, creating a collaborative environment, respecting diverse opinions, and supporting risk taking
Examples of active listening strategies Attending to the speaker, restating key points, asking questions, interpreting information, providing supportive feedback, and being respectful
Diagnostic Assessment Pre-Assessments to see where students are before you start teaching
Assessment Tools Rubrics, analytical checklists (rubric with specific point values), scoring guides, anecdotal notes, and continuums
Assessment Formats Essay, selected response, portfolio, conference, observation, and performance
Achievement Standardized Test Measures what the person has learned (information and skills)
Aptitude Standardized Test Ability to learn or develop a skill (military, cooking, etc.)
Ability Standardized Test Measures intelligence (reason, comprehension)
Norm-Reference Test Compares tester's scores to other testers' scores (SATs). Goal of test is to rank tester for opportunities like college. (Bell-curve)
Criterion-Referenced Test Tester is scored based off of criteria. Goal is to see if tester mastered a certain skill or material (pass/fail - license, medical board exam, certification)
Validity Test measures what is it suppose to measure
Reliability The degree in which the test is consistent and stable in measuring what it needs to measure
Raw Score Unaltered measurement
Scaled Score Some type of transformation from the raw score
Standard Deviation Variability of a data set (small number close values, high number more spread out)
Holistic Scoring Overall grade (skim paper and immediately give it a grade)
Analytical Scoring Scores you on certain aspects of an assignment (writing - grammar, punctuation, conclusion, etc.)
Professional Development Practices and Resources Professional literature, professional associations, workshops, conferences, learning communities, graduate courses, independent research, internships, mentors, and study groups
Activities that support reflective practice Reflective journal, self and peer assessment, incident analysis, portfolio, peer observations, and critical friend
Created by: jmarek