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Field Music History

Describe an 18th century fife. cylindrical bore; ferrules on either end made of brass or pewter (kept from cracking in var. weather); embouchure hole; cork; six holes; 2 1/2 to 3 octaves depending instrument and ability of musician
Describe an 18th century military field drum. made with wood shells and hoops, animal skin heads, and gut snares; carried on sling; sticks or mallets used to beat drum in rudimentary style
Describe an 18th century military horn. similar to natural horn and hunting horns in Europe; light infantry company used bugles; natural trumpet cylindrical bore tube, bugle conical bore tube curled once; late 18th c. no valve to modify pitch; controlled pitch with embouchure; 5 notes
How did use of musical instruments for martial purposes originally spread to Europe? After crusades of 11th/12th century, mercenaries returning to Europe encouraged use for military purposes.
Which European country first standardized martial music? When? Switzerland; 14th century
In the 17th and 18th centuries, what are some occasions that might require a trumpet? civil announcements, concerts, militia drill, calls to worship, town celebrations, communication on ships
Which group produced the earliest trumpet music in the early colonies? What types of music did this work include? Moravians; chorales, marches, and minuets
What was the primary instrument used to communicate by the Continental Army during the American War for Independence? military field drum
What was the collection of music that 18th century field musicians were required to know? The Duty
Name several tunes included in "The Duty". Dinner Call, Parley, To Arms, The Rogues March, Cease Fire, Roast Beef
How did the field musicians communicate the orders and directives of their leaders? Short musical phrase for order or directive- soldiers responded to calls on battlefield and daily life.
What position did General Washington create to standardize and ensure the proficiency of the Continental Army's field musicians? Inspector and Superintendent of Music of the Army
Who wrote, "good musick is not only ornamental to an Army, but so absolutely so essential that the [maneuver] cannot be performed in a regular manner without it." Brigadier General William Heath
Trumpeters were always included in which type of unit? Dragoon
During the early 19th century, the US borrowed their bugle calls from what country? France
When did the bugle become a symbol of the infantry? Civil War
Historically, who were the field musicians? young boys following their fathers; men who could not fire weapons; Native Americans, African Americans; Bi-Racial mulatto men
Which country used fife and drum corps as an integral part of their military until the end of WWII? Germany
How did modern fife and drum corps evolve from field musicians of the Civil War? As field musicians traveled home in 18th/19th c., many started veteran corps in their hometowns. Developed close ties with communities, formed fife and drum corps of 1950s/1960s
Created by: bp0102
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