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A&P Module 5 & 6

Skeletal System

What are bone functions? Shape, Support,Protection,Movement,Electrolyte balance,blood production and Acid base balance.
What are flat bones? They are thin,flat, often curved bones;they protect organs and provide a large surface area for the attachment of muscles.
What are the parts of a long bone? Medullary cavity, Endosteum,Bone marrow, Periosteum and Diaphysis.
What is Diaphysis? hollow cylinder made of compact bone; gives the bone strength;central,shaft -like portion of a long bone.
What is Articular cartilage? covers the epiphysis; eases the movement of the bone within a joint.
What is red bone marrow? fills the medullary cavity in children; in adults, most marrow has turned to yellow marrow.
What is bone tissue? (Matrix) consists of collagen fibers and crystalline salts ( calcium and phosphate). The matrix of the bone is hard and calcified.
What allows bones to resist strong squeezing forces? Calcium Salts
What does red marrow do? produces red blood cells.
What is yellow marrow? saturated with fat and no longer produces blood cells.
What does yellow marrow do ? replaces red bone marrow overtime and incase of severe blood loss, yellow marrow can change back into red marrow.
What is the first skeleton in a developing fetus composed of ? cartilage and fibrous connective tissue .
What are classifications of bone development? Intramembranous and Endochondral ossification.
What is Endochondral Ossification? most bones evolve from cartilage. After 3 months gestation, the fetus has a skeleton composed mostly of cartilage.
What is Intramembranous Ossification? Allow for safe compression of the fetus' head while passing through the birth canal.
What age is the brain completely ossified? Age 2.
What are Fontanels? Soft spots in parts of the newborns skull.
What are the vitamins and minerals needed for proper bone growth? Calcium, Phosphorous and vitamins A,C and D.
What is a green stick Fracture? The fracture is incomplete?
What is comminuted fracture? The bone is broken into pieces.
How long does an uncomplicated fracture take to heal? 8-12 weeks
How many bones does the adult skeleton have? 206 bones
Head prominent expanded end of a one
Trochanter large process; found only in the femur.
Tuberosity a rough, raised bump; for muscle attachment.
Foramen a round opening; passageway for vessels and nerves.
Meatus a tube-like opening
Condyle a rounded knob; usually fits into a fossa on another bone to form a joint.
How many bones does the axial skeleton have? 80 bones
What makes up the axial skeleton? skull, spine, thorax (ribs)
What do the 4 pairs of sinuses do? they lighten the skull and act as a resonators for sound production.
What is kyphosis? hunchback, thoracic curve.
What is Xiphoid process? provides an attachment point for some abdominal muscles and is an important landmark for CPR.
What is the acromion process? It is an extension of the scapula that articulates with the clavicle.
What is the scapula? the shoulder blade
What is the humerus? the long bone of the upper arm.
What is the radius? one of the two bones of the lower arm; located on the thumb side.
What does the phalanges do? forms the fingers
What do the metacarpals do? they form the palm of the hand.
what do the carpals do? form the wrist.
What is true pelvis in a female? wide and shallow
What is true pelvis in a male? narrow and deep
Females have a larger what than males? pelvic and pubic arch
What is the femur? It is the longest and strongest bone in the body.
What does the femur do? It articulates with the acetabulum of the pelvis to form a ball-and-joint socket joint.
What is the patella? it is known as the kneecap; a triangular sesamoid bone embedded it the tendon of the knee
What is the fibula? it is the slinder bone of the lower leg;helps stabilize the ankle; does not bear any weight; the distal end forms the lateral malleolus of the ankle.
What is synovial fluid? a slippery viscous fluid with the consistency of an egg white.
What does synovial fluid do ? it lubricates the joint, nourishes the cartilage and contains phagocytes to remove debris.
What is articular cartilage? a thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the bone surfaces; it permits friction-free movements.
What is a pivot joint? It is formed by the 1 and 2 cervical vertebrae ; allows bones to rotate.
What does the hinge joint do ? It allows only back and forth movements. (ex:Elbow)
What is gliding joint? 2 relatively flat bone surfaces that slide over each other. (Ex: tarsal bones of the ankle)
What is a ball and socket joint? Ball shapes head of one bone fits into a cup-like socket of another bone, it offers the widest range of motion of all joints. (Ex: shoulder and hips)
what is a saddle joint? the surfaces of both bones are shaped like the surface of a saddle, when perched on top of each other they move back and forth and from side to side. It is found only in the thumbs.
What is condyloid joint? Oval convex surface of one bone fits into a similarly shaped depression on another. (EX: distal end of radius with the carpal bones of the wrist.)
What do movements of synovial joints depend on? the shape of the joint and the involvement of nearby muscles,tendons and ligaments.
What attaches muscles to bones? tendons
What attaches bones to bones? Ligaments
Flexion involves bonding a joint to decrease the angle of the joint.
Extension involves straightening a joint to increase the angle between the bones.
hypertension is the extreme extension of a joint beyond its normally straight position.
What happens in circumduction? the distal end of an appendage, such as the arm or leg, moves in a circle.
Dorsiflexion involves moving the toes upward.
Plantar flexion involves moving the toes downward toward the plantar surface.
Abduction movement of a body part away from the midline of the body.
Adduction movement of a body part toward the midline of the body.
Supination movement that turns palm upward.
Pronation movement that turns palm downward.
What is the shoulder? it is a ball-and-socket joint. It has the greatest range of motionof any joint.
What joint is most likely to dislocate? the shoulder
What is scoliosis? spines curves to the side.
What is Kyphosis? exaggerated thoracic curvature
What is lordosis? exaggerated lumbar curvature
What are the 3 types of muscle? cardiac,smooth and skeletal
What are the characteristics of cardiac muscle? involuntary, appears striped or striated and found only in the heart.
What are the characteristics of smooth muscle? involuntary, nonstriated, found in the digestive tract,blood vessels, bladder, airways and uterus.
What are the characteristics of skeletal muscle? voluntary, appears markedly striated and attached to the bone and causes movement of the body.
what is the epimysium? layer of connective tissue that surrounds the muscle as a whole and binds all the muscle fibers together.
How does the muscle attach to the bone ? by tendons
What are tendons? strong cords of fibrous connective tissue.
What requires stimulation by a motor neuron? skeletal muscle contraction
What is muscle tone? It is a continuous state of partial muscle contraction in which muscles are at their optimal resting length.
What is the threshold? the minimum voltage needed to cause muscle fiber contraction
What is incomplete tetanus? the condition of rapid contraction with only partial relaxation.
What uses anaerobic respiration of glucose? sprinter
What does sprinter do ? can generate energy quickly- useful for intense bursts of activity
What is the prime mover? the main muscle triggering the movement.
What is atrophy? a lack of use causes the muscle fibers and therefore the entire muscle to shrink.
What are muscles named according to? size,shape,location, number of origins,direction of muscle fibers and actions.
What does bi mean? two origins-biceps brachii
What does frontalis do? raises the eyebrows when glancing upward or when showing surprise.
What do the sternocleidomastoid do? flexes the head
What muscles are used for breathing? external and internal intercostals and the diaphragm.
What does the external intercostals do ? elevate the ribs during inspiration.
What does internal intercostals do? depress the ribs during forced exhalation.
What does the diaphragm do? enlarges the thorax to trigger inspiration.
What is rectus abdominis? bending at the waist.
What is the deltoid do? abducts,flexes and rotates the arm; involved in swinging the arm.
What does the pectoralis major do? flexes and adducts the upper arm; such as when climbing or hugging.
What does the Trapezius do? raises and lowers the shoulders; stabilizes the scapula during the arm movements.
What does the latissimus dorsi do? adducts the humerus; extends the upper arm backward such as when rowing or swimming)
What is brachialis? It is the prime mover when flexing the forearm.
What is the triceps brachii? It is the prime mover when extending forearm.
What is the sartorius? longest muscle in the body; aids in the flexion of the hip and knee.
What is the quadriceps femoris? most powerful muscle in the body.
What does the bulging of the calf muscle consist of? Gastrocnemius ( the more superficial muscle) and the soleus( deeper muscle)
What flexes the lumbar region of the spinal cord? Rectus Abdominis
What raises and lowers the shoulders? trapezius
What is the prime mover when extending the forearm? Triceps brachii
Created by: laciewillis13



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