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Chapter 21, MedTerms

The Integumentary System

TermDefinition
cutaneous Pertaining to the skin (from Latin cutis, meaning "skin")
derma Skin (from Greek)
dermis The layer of the skin between the epidermis and the subcutaenous tissue; the true skin or corium
epidermis The outermost layer of the skin (from epi-, meaning "upon or over" and derm, meaning "skin")
hair A thread-like keratinized outgrowth from the skin (root: trich/o)
hair follicle The sheath in which a hair develops
integumentary system The skin and its associated glands, hair, and nails
keratin A protein that thickens and toughens the skin and makes up hair and nails (root: kerat/o)
melanin A dark pigment that gives color to the hair and skin and protects the skin against the sun's radiation (root: melan/o)
nail A plate-like keratinized outgrowth of the skin that covers the dorsal surface of the terminal phalanges (root: onych/o)
sebaceous gland A gland that produces sebum; usually associated with a hair follicle (root: seb/o)
sebum A fatty secretion of the sebaceous glands that lubricates the hair and skin (root: seb/o)
skin The tissue that covers the body; the integument (roots: derm/o, dermat/o)
subcutaneous layer The layer of tissue beneath the skin; also called hypodermis
sudoriferous gland A sweat gland (root: hidr/o)
derm/o, dermat/o skin
kerat/o keratin, horny layer of the skin
melan/o dark, black, melanin
hidr/o sweat, perspiration
seb/o sebum, sebaceous gland
trich/o hair
onych/o nail
bulla raised, fluid-filled lesion larger than a vesicle (plural: bullae)
fissure crack or break in the skin
macule flat, colored spot
nodule solid, raised lesion larger than a papule; often indicative of systemic disease
papule small, circular, raised lesion at the surface of the skin
plaque superficial, flat, or slightly raised differentiated patch more than 1 cm in diameter
pustule raised lesion containing pus; often in a hair follicle or sweat pore
ulcer lesion resulting from destruction of the skin and perhaps subcutaneous tissue
vesicle small, fluid-filled, raised lesion; a blister or bleb
wheal smooth, rounded, slightly raised area often associated with itching; seen in urticaria (hives), such as that resulting from allergy
atopic dermatitis Hereditary, allergic, chronic skin inflammation with pruritus (itching); eczema
basal cell carcinoma An epithelial tumor that rarely metastasizes and has a high cure rate with surgical removal
cicatrization The process of scar formation; a scar is a cicatrix
debridement Removal of dead or damaged tissue, as from a wound
dehiscence Splitting or bursting, as when the layers of a wound separate
dermatitis Inflammation of the skin, often associated with redness and itching; may be caused by allergy, irritants (contact dermatitis), or a variety of diseases
dermatology Study of the skin and diseases of the skin
dermatome Instrument for cutting thin skin sections for grafting
eczema A general term for skin inflammation with redness, lesions, and itching; atopic dermatitis
erythema Diffuse redness of the skin
escharotomy Removal of scab tissue resulting from burns or other skin injuries; a scab or crust is an eschar
evisceration Protrusion of internal organs (viscera) through an opening, as through a wound
exudate Material, which may include fluid, cells, pus, or blood, that escapes from damaged tissue
Kaposi sarcoma Cancerous lesion of the skin and other tissues seen most often in patients with AIDS
keloid A raised, thickened scar caused by tissue overgrowth during scar formation
lupus erythematosus (LE) A chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of connective tissue that often involves the skin; types include the more widespread systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a discoid form (DLE) that involves only the skin
malignant melanoma A metastasizing pigmented skin tumor
pemphigus An autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by sudden, intermittent formation of bullae (blisters); may be fatal if untreated
pressure ulcer An ulcer caused by pressure to an area of the body, as from a bed or chair; decubitus ulcer, bedsore, pressure sore
pruritus Severe itching
psoriasis A chronic hereditary dermatitis with red lesions covered by silvery scales
rule of nines A method for estimating the extent of body surface area involved in a burn by assigning percentages in multiples of nine to various body regions
scleroderma A chronic disease that is characterized by thickening and tightening of the skin and that often involves internal organs in a form called progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS)
squamous cell carcinoma An epidermal cancer that may invade deeper tissues but tends not to metastasize
acne An inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles usually associated with excess sebum secretion; acne vulgaris
actinic Pertaining to the effects of radiant energy, such as sunlight, ultraviolet light, and x-rays
albinism A hereditary lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes
alopecia Absence or loss of hair; baldness
Beau lines White lines across the fingernails; usually a sign of systemic disease or injury
bromhidrosis Sweat that has a foul odor because of bacterial decomposition; also spelled bromidrosis
carbuncle A localized infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, usually caused by staphylococcus, and associated with pain and discharge of pus
comedo A plug of sebum, often containing bacteria, in a hair follicle; a blackhead (plural: comedones)
dermatophytosis Fungal infection of the skin, especially between the toes; athlete's foot (root phyt/o means "plant")
diaphoresis Profuse sweating
dyskeratosis Any abnormality in keratin formation in epithelial cells
ecchymosis A collection of blood under the skin caused by leakage from small vessels
erysipelas An acute infectious skin disease with localized redness and swelling and systemic symptoms
erythema nodosum Inflammation of subcutaneous tissues resulting in tender, erythematous nodules; may be an abnormal immune response t a systemic disease, an infection, or a drug
exanthema Any cutaneous eruption that accompanies a disease, such as measles; a rash
excoriation Lesion caused by scratching or abrasion
folliculitis Inflammation of a hair follicle
furuncle A painful skin nodule caused by staphylococci that enter through a hair follicle; a boil
hemangioma A benign tumor of blood vessels; in the skin, called birthmarks or port wine stains
herpes simplex A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus; type I herpes simplex virus produces fluid-filled vesicles, usually on the lips, after fever, sun exposure, injury, or stress; type II infections usually involve the genital organs
hirsutism Excessive growth of hair
icthyosis A dry, scaly condition of the skin (from the root ichthy/o, meaning "fish")
impetigo A bacterial skin infection with pustules that rupture and form crusts; most commonly seen in children, usually on the face
keratosis Any skin condition marked by thickened or horny growth; seborrheic keratosis is a benign tumor, yellow or light brown in color, that appears in the elderly; actinic keratosis is caused by exposure to sunlight and may lead to squamous cell carcinoma
lichenification Thickened marks caused by chronic rubbing, as seen in atopic dermatitis (a lichen is a flat, branching type of plant that grows on rocks and bark)
mycosis fungoides A rare malignant disease that originates in the skin and involves the internal organs and lymph nodes; there are large, painful, ulcerating tumors
nevus A defined discoloration of the skin; a congenital vascular skin tumor; a mole, birthmark
paronychia Infection around a nail caused by bacteria or fungi; may affect multiple nails
pediculosis Infestation with lice
petechiae Flat, pinpoint, purplish-red spots caused by bleeding within the skin or mucous membrane (singular: petechia)
photosensitization Sensitization of the skin to light, usually from the action of drugs, plant products, or other substances
purpura A condition characterized by hemorrhages into the skin and other tissues
rosacea A condition of unknown cause involving redness of the skin, pustules, and overactivity of sebaceous glands, mainly on the face
scabies A highly contagious skin disease caused by a mite
senile lentigines Brown macules that appear on sun-exposed skin in adults; liver spots
shingles An acute eruption of vesicles along the path of a nerve; herpes zoster; caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox
tinea A fungal skin infection; ringworm
tinea versicolor Superficial chronic fungal infection that causes varied skin pigmentation
urticaria A skin reaction marked by temporary, smooth, raised areas (wheals) associated with itching, hives; see also wheals
venous stasis ulcer Ulcer caused by venous insufficiency and stasis of venous blood; usually forms near the ankle
verruca An epidermal tumor; a wart
vitiligo Patchy disappearance of pigment in the skin; leukoderma
xeroderma pigmentosum A fatal hereditary disease that begin in childhood with skin discolorations and ulcers and muscle atrophy; there is increased sensitivity to the sun and increased susceptibility to cancer
aloe A gel from leaves of the plant Aloe vera that is used in treatment of burns and minor skin irritations
antipruritic Agent that prevents or relieves itching
cautery Destruction of tissue by physical or chemical means; cauterization; also the instrument or chemical used for this purpose
dermabrasion A plastic surgical procedure for removing scars or birthmarks by chemical or mechanical destruction of epidermal tissue
dermatoplasty Transplantation of human skin; skin grafting
diascopy Examination of skin lesions by pressing a glass plate against the skin
fulguration Destruction of tissue by high-frequency electric sparks
skin turgor Resistance of the skin to deformation; evidenced by the ability of the skin to return to position when pinched; skin turgor is a measure of the skin's elasticity and state of hydration
Wood lamp An ultraviolet light used to diagnose fungal infections
BSA Body surface area
DLE Discoid lupus erythematosus
FTSG Full-thickness skin graft
LE Lupus erythematosus
PSS Progressive systemic sclerosis
PUVA Psoralen ultraviolet A
SCLE Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus
SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus
SPF Sun protection factor
STSG Split-thickness skin graft
UV Ultraviolet
UVA Ultraviolet A
UVB Ultraviolet B
VAC Vacuum-assisted closure
Created by: SeedyVampire