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Chapter 20, MedTerms

The Muscular System

flexion closing the angle at a joint, such as bending at the knee or elbow
extension opening the angle at a joint, such as straightening at the knee or elbow
abduction movement away from the midline of the body, such as outward movement of the arm at the shoulder
adduction movement toward the midline of the body, such as the return of a lifted arm to the body
rotation turning of a body part on its own axis, such as turning of the forearm from the elbow
circumduction circular movement from a central point, such as tracing a circle with an outstretched arm
pronation turning downward, such as turning the palm of the hand downward
supination turning upward, such as turning the palm of the hand upward
eversion turning outward, such as turning the sole of the foot outward
inversion turning inward, such as turning the sole of the foot inward
dorsiflexion bending backward, such as moving the foot so that the toes point upward, away from the sole of the foot
plantar flexion bending the sole of the foot, such as pointing the toes downward
acetylcholine (ACh) A neurotransmitter that stimulates contraction of skeletal muscles
actin One of the two contractile proteins in muscle cells; the other is myosin
agonist A muscle that carries out a given movement (from Greek agon meaning "contest," "struggle")
antagonist The muscle that opposes an agonist; it must relax when the agonist contracts
cardiac muscle Involuntary muscle that makes up the heart wall
fascia The fibrous sheath of connective tissue that covers a muscle; called deep fascia to differentiate it from the superficial fascia that underlies the skin (root: fasci/o) (plural: fasciae)
fascicle A small bundle, as of muscle or nerve fibers
insertion In a given movement, the point where a muscle is attached to a moving part of the skeleton
muscle An organ that produces movement by contracting; also the tissue that composes such organs (roots: my/o, muscul/o)
myosin One of the two contractile proteins in muscle cells; the other is actin
neuromuscular junction (NMJ) The point of contact, or synapse, between a branch of a motor neuron and a muscle cell
origin In a given movement, the point where a muscle is attached to a stable part of the skeleton
prime mover The main muscle involved in a given movement
skeletal muscle Voluntary muscle that moves the skeleton and maintains posture
smooth muscle Involuntary muscle that makes up the wall of hollow organs, vessels, and ducts; visceral muscle
synergist A muscle that assists a prime mover to produce a given movement
tendon A fibrous band of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone (roots: ten/o, tendin/o)
tonus A state of steady, partial muscle contraction that maintains firmness; muscle tone (root: ton/o)
my/o muscle
muscul/o muscle
in/o fiber
fasci/o fascia
ten/o, tendin/o tendon
ton/o tone
erg/o work
kin/o-, kine, kinesi/o, kinet/o movement
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) A disease caused by motor neuron degeneration resulting in muscular weakness and atrophy; Lou Gehrig disease
chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) A disease of unknown cause that involves persistent fatigue along with muscle and joint pain and other symptoms; may be virally induced
dermatomyositis A disease of unknown origin involving muscular inflammation as well as dermatitis and skin rashes
fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) A disorder associated with widespread muscular aches and stiffness and having no known cause
muscular dystrophy A group of hereditary muscular disorders marked by progressive weakness and muscular atrophy
myasthenia gravis (MG) A disease characterized by progressive muscular weakness; an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction
polymyositis A disease of unknown cause involving muscular inflammation and weakness
repetitive strain injury (RSI) Tissue damage caused by repeated motion, usually overuse of the arm or hand in occupational activities such as writing, typing, painting, or using hand tools; also called repetitive motion injury, cumulative trauma injury, overuse syndrome
sprain Injury to a ligament caused by abnormal or excessive force at a joint, but without bone dislocation or fracture
strain Trauma to a muscle because of overuse or excessive stretch; if severe, may involve muscular tearing, bleeding, separation of a muscle from its tendon, or tendon separation from a bone
tendinitis Inflammation of a tendon, usually caused by injury or overuse; the shoulder, elbow, and hip are common sites; also spelled tendonitis
tenosynovitis Inflammation of a tendon and its sheath
creatine kinase (CK) An enzyme found in muscle tissue; the serum CK level increases in cases of muscle damage; creatine phosphokinase (CPK)
electromyography (EMG) Study of the electrical activity of muscles during contraction
aponeurosis A flat, white, sheet-like tendon that connects a muscle with the part that it moves (see abdominal aponeurosis)
creatine A substance in muscle cells that stores energy for contraction
glycogen A complex sugar that is stored for energy in muscles and in the liver
isometric Pertaining to a muscle action in which the muscle tenses but does not shorten (literally: same measurement)
isotonic Pertaining to a muscle action in which the muscle shortens to accomplish movement (literally: same tone)
kinesthesia Awareness of movement; perception of the weight, direction, and degree of movement (-esthesia means "sensation")
lactic acid An acid that accumulates in muscle cells functioning without enough oxygen (anaerobically), as in times of great physical exertion
motor unit A single motor neuron and all of the muscle cells that its branches stimulate
myoglobin A protein similar to hemoglobin that stores oxygen in muscle cells
asterixis Rapid, jerky movements, especially in the hands, caused by intermittent loss of muscle tone
asthenia Weakness (prefix a- meaning "without" with root sthen/o meaning "strength")
ataxia Lack of muscle coordination (from root tax/o meaning "order, arrangement") (adjective: ataxic)
athetosis A condition marked by slow, irregular, twisting movements, especially in the hands and fingers (adjective: athetotic)
atrophy A wasting away; a decrease in the size of a tissue or organ, such as muscular wasting from disuse
avulsion Forcible tearing away of a part
clonus Alternating spasmodic contraction and relaxation in a muscle (adjective: clonic)
contracture Permanent contraction of a muscle
fasciculation Involuntary small contractions or twitching of muscle fiber groups (fasiculi)
fibromyositis A nonspecific term for pain, tenderness, and stiffness in muscles and joints
fibrositis Inflammation of fibrous connective tissue, especially the muscle fasciae; marked by pain and stiffness
restless legs syndrome (RLS) Uneasiness, twitching, or restlessness in the legs that occurs after going to bed and often leading to insomnia; may be caused by poor circulation or drug side effects
rhabdomyolysis An acute disease involving diffuse destruction of skeletal muscle cells (root rhabd/o means "rod," referring to the long, rod-like muscle cells)
rhabdomyoma A benign tumor of skeletal muscle
rhabdomyosarcoma A highly malignant tumor of skeletal muscle
rheumatism A general term for inflammation, soreness, and stiffness of muscles associated with joint pain (adjectives: rheumatic, rheumatoid)
spasm A sudden, involuntary muscle contraction; may be clonic (contraction alternating with relaxation) or tonic (sustained); a strong and painful spasm may be called a cramp (adjectives: spastic, spasmodic)
spasticity Increased tone or contractions of muscles causing stiff and awkward movements
tetanus An acute infectious disease caused by the anaerobic bacillus Clostridium tetani; marked by persistent painful spasms of voluntary muscles; lockjaw
tetany A condition marked by spasms, cramps, and muscle twitching caused by a metabolic imbalance, such as low blood calcium resulting from underactivity of the parathyroid glands
torticollis Spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles causing stiffness and twisting of the neck; wryneck
Chvostek sign Spasm of facial muscles after a tap over the facial nerve; evidence of tetany
dynamometer Instrument for measuring degree of muscle power; from root dynam/o meaning "force, energy;" also called ergometer
occupational therapy (OT) Health profession concerned with physical rehabilitation and prevention of disability; exercise, massage, and other therapeutic methods are used to restore proper movement
physical therapy (PT) Health profession concerned with physical rehabilitation and prevention of disability; exercise, massage, and other therapeutic methods are used to restore proper movement
rheumatology The study and treatment of rheumatic diseases
Trousseau sign Spasmodic contractions caused by pressing the nerve supplying a muscle; seen in tetany
antiinflammatory agent Drug that reduces inflammation; includes steroids, such as cortisol, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
COX-2 inhibitor Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that does not cause the stomach problems associated with other NSAIDs; inhibits the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme without affecting the COX-1 enzyme, a lack of which can cause stomach ulcers
muscle relaxant A drug that reduces muscle tension; different forms may be used to relax muscles during surgery, to control spasticity, or to relieve musculoskeletal pain
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) Drug that reduces inflammation but is not a steroid; examples include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and other inhibitors of prostaglandins, naturally produced substances that promote inflammation
ACh Acetylcholine
ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
CFS Chronic fatigue syndrome
C(P)K Creatine (phospho)kinase
CTS Carpal tunnel syndrome
EMG Electromyography, electromyogram
FMS Fibromyalgia syndrome
LLE Left lower extremity
LUE Left upper extremity
MG Myasthenia gravis
MMT Manual muscle test(ing)
NMJ Neuromuscular junction
OT Occupational therapy/therapist
PT Physical therapy/therapist
RICE Rest, ice, compression, elevation
RLE Right lower extremity
RLS Restless legs syndrome
ROM Range of motion
RSI Repetitive strain injury
RTC Rotator cuff
RUE Right upper extremity
SITS Suspraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis (muscles)
Created by: SeedyVampire
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