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Chapter 19, MedTerms

The Skeletal System

cranium 8 cranial bones; axial skeleton region; form the chamber enclosing the brain; house the ear and form part of the eye socket
facial portion 14 facial bones; axial skeleton region; form the face and chambers for sensory organs
hyoid U-shaped bone under mandible (lower jaw); axial skeleton region; used for muscle attachments
ossicles 3 ear bones; axial skeleton region; transmit sound waves through middle ear
vertebral column 26 vertebrae; trunk region; enclose the spinal cord
sternum the anterior bone of the thorax; trunk region
ribs 12 pairs; enclose the organs of the thorax; trunk region
clavicle part of the shoulder girdle; appendicular skeleton region; anterior, between sternum and scapula
scapula part of the shoulder girdle; appendicular skeleton region; posterior, anchors muscles that move arm
humerus part of the upper extremity; appendicular skeleton region; proximal arm bone
ulna part of the upper extremity; appendicular skeleton region; medial bone of forearm
radius part of the upper extremity; appendicular skeleton region; lateral bone of forearm
carpals 8 bones; part of the upper extremity; appendicular skeleton region; wrist bones
metacarpals 5 bones; part of the upper extremity; appendicular skeleton region; bones of palm
phalanges (upper) 14 bones; part of the upper extremity; appendicular skeleton region; bones of fingers
os coxae 2 pelvic bones; part of the pelvic bones; lower division region; join sacrum and coccyx of vertebral column to form the bony pelvis
femur part of the lower extremity; lower division region; thigh bone
patella part of the lower extremity; lower division region; kneecap
tibia part of the lower extremity; lower division region; medial bone of leg
fibula part of the lower extremity; lower division region; lateral bone of leg
tarsal bones 7 bones; part of the lower extremity; lower division region; ankle bones; the large heel bone is the calcaneus
metatarsals 5 bones; part of the lower extremity; lower division region; bones of instep
phalanges (lower) 14 bones; part of the lower extremity; lower division region; bones of toes
acetabulum The bony socket in the hip bone that holds the head of the femur (from the Latin word for vinegar because it resembles the base of a vinegar cruet)
articulation A joint (adjective: articular)
atlas The first cervical vertebra (root: atlant/o)
axis The second cervical vertebra
bone A calcified form of dense connective tissue; osseous tissue; also an individual unit of the skeleton made of such tissue (root: oste/o)
bone marrow The soft material that fills bone cavities; yellow marrow fills the central cavity of the long bones; blood cell are formed in red bone marrow, which is located in spongy bone tissue (root: myel/o)
bursa A fluid-filled sac that reduces friction near a joint (root: burs/o)
cartilage A type of dense connective tissue that is found in the skeleton, larynx, trachea, and bronchi; it is the precursor to most bone tissue (root: chondr/o)
diarthrosis A freely movable joint; also called a synovial joint (adjective: diarthrotic)
diaphysis The shaft of a long bone
epiphyseal plate The growth region of a long bone; located in the metaphysis, between the diaphysis and the epiphysis; when bone growth ceases, this area appears as the epiphyseal line; also spelled epiphysial
epiphysis The irregularly shaped end of a long bone
ilium The large, flared, superior portion of the pelvic bone (root: ili/o) (adjective: iliac)
joint The junction between two bones; articulation (root: arthr/o)
ligament A strong band of connective tissue that joins one bone to another
metaphysis The region of a long bone between the diaphysis (shaft) and epiphysis (end); during development, the growing region of a long bone
ossification The formation of bone tissue (from Latin os, meaning "bone")
osteoblast A cell that produces bone tissue
osteoclast A cell that destroys bone tissue
osteocyte A mature bone cell that nourishes and maintains bone tissue
pelvis The large ring of bone at the inferior trunk formed of the two hip bones (ossa coxae) joined to the sacrum and coccyx; each os coxae is formed of three bones: the superior, flared ilium; ischium; and pubis (plural: pelves)
periosteum The fibrous membrane that covers a bone's surface
resorption Removal of bone by breakdown and absorption into the circulation
skeleton The body's bony framework, consisting of 206 bones; (root: skelet/o)
suture An immovable joint, such as the joints between the skull bones
symphysis A slightly movable joint
synovial fluid The fluid contained in a freely movable (diarthrotic) joint; synovia (root: synov/i)
synovial joint A freely movable joint; has a joint cavity containing a synovial fluid; a diarthrosis
tendon A fibrous band of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
thorax The upper part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen; formed by the 12 pairs of ribs and sternum
oste/o bone
myel/o bone marrow; also, spinal cord
chondr/o cartilage
arthr/o joint
synov/i synovial fluid, joint, or membrane
burs/o bursa
crani/o skull, cranium
spondyl/o vertebra
vertebr/o vertebra, spinal column
rachi/o spine
cost/o rib
sacr/o sacrum
coccy, coccyg/o coccyx
pelvi/o pelvis
ili/o ilium
closed fracture a simple fracture with no open wound
Colles fracture fracture of the distal end of the radius with backward displacement of the hand
comminuted fracture fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed
compression fracture fracture caused by force from both ends, as to a vertebra
greenstick fracture one side of the bone is broken and the other side is bent
impacted fracture one fragment is driven into the other
oblique fracture break occurs at an angle across the bone; usually one fragment slips by the other
open fracture fracture is associated with an open wound, or broken bone protrudes through the skin
Pott fracture fracture of the distal end of the fibula with injury to the tibial joint
spiral fracture fracture is in a spiral or S shape; usually caused by twisting injuries
transverse fracture a break at right angles to the long axis of a bone
ankylosing spondylitis A chronic, progressive inflammatory disease involving the spinal joints and surrounding soft tissue, most common in young males; also called rheumatoid spondylitis
ankylosis Immobility and fixation of a joint
arthritis Inflammation of a joint
chondrosarcoma A malignant tumor of cartilage
curvature of the spine An exaggerated spinal curve, such as scoliosis, lordosis, or kyphosis
degenerative joint disease (DJD) Osteoarthritis
fracture A break in a bone; in a closed or simple fracture, the broken bone does not penetrate the skin; in an open fracture, there is an accompanying wound in the skin
gout A form of acute arthritis, usually beginning in the knee or foot, caused by deposit of uric acid salts in the joints
herniated disk Protrusion of the center (nucleus pulposus) of an intervertebral disk into the spinal canal; ruptured or "slipped" disk
kyphosis An exaggerated curve of the spine in the thoracic region; hunchback, humpback
lordosis An exaggerated curve of the spine in the lumbar region; swayback
osteoarthritis (OA) Progressive deterioration of joint cartilage with growth of new bone and soft tissue in and around the joint; the most common form of arthritis; results from wear and tear, injury, or disease; also called degenerative joint disease (DJD)
osteogenic sarcoma A malignant bone tumor; osteosarcoma
osteomalacia A softening and weakening of the bones due to vitamin D deficiency or other disease
osteomyelitis Inflammation of bone and bone marrow caused by infection, usually bacterial
osteopenia A lower-than-average bone density, which may foreshadow osteoporosis
osteoporosis A condition characterized by reduction in bone density, most common in white women past menopause; predisposing factors include poor diet, inactivity, and low estrogen levels
Paget disease Skeletal disease of the elderly characterized by bone thickening and distortion with bowing of long bones; osteitis deformans
Pott disease Inflammation of the vertebrae, usually caused by tuberculosis
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) A chronic autoimmune disease of unknown origin resulting in inflammation of peripheral joints and related structures; more common in women than in men
rheumatoid factor A group of antibodies found in the blood in cases of rheumatoid arthritis and other systemic diseases
rickets Faulty bone formation in children, usually caused by a deficiency of vitamin D
sciatica Severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve, usually related to spinal nerve root irritation
scoliosis A sideways curvature of the spine in any region
spondylolisthesis A forward displacement of one vertebra over another (-listhesis means "a slipping")
spondylolysis Degeneration of the articulating portions of a vertebra allowing for spinal distortion, specifically in the lumbar region
alkaline phosphatase An enzyme needed in the formation of bone; serum activity of this enzyme is useful in diagnosis
arthrocentesis Aspiration of fluid from a joint by needle puncture
arthrodesis Surgical immobilization (fusion) of a joint; artificial ankylosis
arthroplasty Partial or total replacement of a joint with a prosthesis
arthroscopy Use of an endoscope to examine the interior of a joint or to perform surgery on the joint; the instrument used is an arthroscope
diskectomy Surgical removal of a herniated intervertebral disk; also spelled discectomy
orthopedics The study and treatment of disorders of the skeleton, muscles, and associated structures; literally "straight" (ortho) "child" (ped); also spelled orthopaedics
reduction of a fracture Return of a fractured bone to a normal position; may be closed (not requiring surgery) or open (requiring surgery)
traction The process of drawing or pulling, such as traction of the head in the treatment of injuries to the cervical vertebrae
antiinflammatory agent Drug that reduces inflammation; includes steroids, such as hydrocortisone, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
bisphosphonate Agent used to prevent and treat osteoporosis; increases bone mass by decreasing bone turnover; examples are alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), and ibandronate (Boniva)
nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) Drug that reduces inflammation but is not a steroid; examples include aspirin and ibuprofen and other inhibitors of prostaglandins, naturally produced substances that promote inflammation
selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) Drug that acts on estrogen receptors; raloxifene (Evista) is used to prevent bone loss after menopause; other SERMs are used to prevent and treat estrogen-sensitive breast cancer
annulus fibrosus annulus fibrosus
calvaria The dome-like upper portion of the skull
coxa Hip
cruciate ligaments Ligaments that cross in the knee joint to connect the tibia and fibula; they are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL); cruciate means "shaped like a cross"
genu The knee
glenoid cavity The bony socket in the scapula that articulates with the head of the humerus
hallux The great toe
malleolus The projection of the tibia or fibula on either side of the ankle
meniscus Crescent-shaped disk of cartilage found in certain joints, such as the knee joint; in the knee, the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus separate the tibia and femur; meniscus means "crescent;" (plural: menisci)
nucleus pulposus The central mass of an intervertebral disk
olecranon The process of the ulna that forms the elbow
os Bone (plural: ossa)
osseous Pertaining to bone
symphysis pubis The anterior pelvic joint, formed by the union of the two pubic bones; also called pubic symphysis
achondroplasia Decreased growth of cartilage in the growth plate of long bones resulting in dwarfism; a genetic disorder
Baker cyst Mass formed at the knee joint by distention of a bursa with excess synovial fluid resulting from chronic irritation
bunion Inflammation and enlargement of the metatarsal joint of the great toe, usually with displacement of the great toe toward the other toes
bursitis Inflammation of a bursa, a small fluid-filled sac near a joint; causes include injury, irritation, and joint disease; the shoulder, hip, elbow, and knee are common in sites
carpal tunnel syndrome Numbness and weakness of the hand caused by pressure on the median nerve as it passes through a channel formed by carpal bones
chondroma A benign tumor of cartilage
Ewing tumor A bone tumor that usually appears in children 5 to 15 years of age; it begins in the shaft of a bone and spreads readily to other bones; it may respond to radiation therapy but then returns; also called Ewing sarcoma
exostosis A bony outgrowth from the surface of a bone
giant cell tumor A bone tumor that usually appears in children and young adults; the end of the bones are destroyed, commonly at the knee, by a large mass that does not metastasize
hammertoe Change in position of the toe joints so that the toe takes on a claw-like appearance and the first joint protrudes upward, causing irritation and pain on walking
hallux valgus Painful condition involving lateral displacement of the great toe at the metatarsal joint; there is also enlargement of the metatarsal head and bunion formation
Heberden nodes Small, hard nodules formed in the cartilage of the distal finger joints in osteoarthritis
hemarthrosis Bleeding into a joint cavity
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease Degeneration (osteochondrosis) of the femur's proximal growth center; the bone is eventually restored, but there may be deformity and weakness; most common in young boys; also called coxa plana
multiple myeloma A cancer of blood-forming cells in bone marrow
neurogenic arthropathy Degenerative joint disease caused by impaired nervous stimulation; most common cause is diabetes mellitus; Charcot arthropaxy
Osgood-Schlatter disease Degeneration (osteochondrosis) of the tibia's proximal growth center causing pain and tendinitis at the knee
osteochondroma A benign tumor consisting of cartilage and bone
osteochondrosis Disease of a bone's growth center in children; tissue degeneration is followed by recalcification
osteodystrophy Abnormal bone development
osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) A hereditary disease resulting in the formation of brittle bones that fracture easily; there is faulty synthesis of collagen, the main structural protein in connective tissue
osteoma A benign bone tumor that usually remains small and localized
Reiter syndrome Chronic polyarthritis that usually affects young men; occurs after a bacterial infection and is common in those infected with HIV; may also involve the eyes and genitourinary tract
spondylosis Degeneration and ankylosis of the vertebrae resulting in pressure on the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots; often applied to any degenerative lesion of the spine
subluxation A partial dislocation
talipes A deformity of the foot, especially one occurring congenitally; clubfoot
valgus Bent outward
varus Bent inward
von Recklinghausen disease Loss of bone tissue caused by increased parathyroid hormone; bones become decalcified and deformed and fracture easily
allograft Graft of tissue between individuals of the same species but different genetic makeup; homograft, allogeneic graft
arthroclasia Surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
aspiration Removal by suction, as removal of fluid from a body cavity; also inhalation, such as accidental inhalation of material into the respiratory tract
autograft Graft of tissue taken from a site on or in the body of the person receiving the graft; autologous graft
chondroitin A complex polysaccharide found in connective tissue; used as a dietary supplement, usually with glucosamine, for treatment of joint pain
glucosamine A dietary supplement used in the treatment of joint pain
goniometer A device used to measure joint angles and movements (root goni/o means "angle")
iontophoresis Introduction into the tissue by means of electric current, using the ions of a given drug; used in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
laminectomy Excision of the posterior arch (lamina) of a vertebra
menisectomy Removal of the crescent-shaped cartilage (meniscus) of the knee joint
myelogram Radiograph of the spinal canal after injection of a radiopaque dye; used to evaluate a herniated disk
osteoplasty Scraping and removal of damaged bone from a joint
prosthesis An artificial organ or part, such as an artificial limb
condyle smooth, rounded protuberance at a joint
crest raised, narrow ridge
epicondyle projection above a condyle
facet small, flattened surface
foramen rounded opening
fossa hollow cavity
meatus passage or channel, such as a long channel within a bone; also the external opening of a canal, such as the urinary meatus
process projection
sinus a space or channel, such as the air-filled spaces in certain skull bones
spine sharp projection
trochanter large, blunt projection as at the top of the femur
tubercle small, rounded projection
tuberosity large, rounded projection
ACL Anterior cruciate ligament
AE Above the elbow
AK Above the knee
ASF Anterior spinal fusion
BE Below the elbow, also barium enema
BK Below the knee
BMD Bone mineral density
C Cervical vertebra; numbered C1 to C7
Co Coccyx; coccygeal
DEXA Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (scan)
DIP Distal interphalangeal (joint)
DJD Degenerative joint disease
Fx Fracture
HNP Herniated nucleus pulposus
IM Intramedullary, also intramuscular
L Lumbar vertebra; numbered L1 to L5
MCP Metacarpophalangeal (joint)
MTP Metarsophalangeal (joint)
NSAID(s) Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug(s)
OA Osteoarthritis
OI Osteogenesis imperfecta
ORIF Open reduction internal fixation
ortho, ORTH Orthopedics
PCL Posterior cruciate ligament
PIP Proximal interphalangeal (joint)
PSF Posterior spinal fusion
RA Rheumatoid arthritis
S Sacrum; sacral
SERM Selective estrogen receptor modulator
T Thoracic vertebra; numbered T1 to T12
THA Total hip arthroplasty
THP Total hip precautions
THR Total hip replacement
TKA Total knee arthroplasty
TMJ Temporomandibular joint
Tx Traction
Created by: SeedyVampire
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