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The Back - PT620

Questions and flashcards from the outline Summer 2009

Name the curvatures of the adult spine --Cervical Lordosis --Thoracic Kyphosis --Lumbar Lordosis
DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT SPINAL CURVATURES (Primary or Secondary?) (When do they develop?) --Cervical Lordosis- Secondary (w/head lifting) --Thoracic curve- primary (at birth) --Lumbar Lordosis- Secondary (w/standing)
Intervertebral Discs are located between all vertebrae except.... C1 and C2
Name 2 Portions of Intervertebral Disc -Annulus Fibrosus -Nucleus Pulposus
ANNULUS FIBROSUS (details) -composed of fibrous CT -tough (thinner post than ant) -constructed in interlacing layers -creates a fibrocartilaginous joint *can tear w/o herniation; will still hurt
NUCLEUS PULPOSUS (details) -gelatinous sturcture, deep w/in annulus -give height to disc (shorter in pm than am;b/c of compression) -changes position w/ movt. (moves post w/ flex) -can herniate through torn annulus (most herniations are post or lat) -fluid of reabso
Name the ligaments of the spine -Supraspinous Ligament -Interspinous Ligament -Ligamentum Flavum -Post. Longitudinal Ligament -Ant. Longitudinal Ligament
Name the specialized ligaments of the Upper Cervical Spine -Cruciform Ligament (transverse and vertical parts) -Apical Ligament -Alar
SUPRASPINOUS LIGAMENT (details) -runs over the tips of spinous processes -blends w/interspinous ligament -thick and deep in cervical region (called ligamentum nuchae) -helps limit flexion
INTERSPINOUS LIGAMENT (details) -from lower border of one spinous process to upper border of next -helps limit flexion
LIGAMENTUM FLAVUM (details) -strongest & most important of the three (supraspin., interspin, & ligam. flav) -runs b/t laminae -one on each side, separated by midline -laterally blend with the synovial facet joint capsule -very elastic (yellow color)
POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT (details) -runs on post. surface of vertebral bodies w/in vertebral canal -thin in lumbar region -limits flexion
ANTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT (details) -runs b/t vertebral bodies anteriorly -crosses over intervertebral discs -particularly dense in lumbar region -Limits Extension
CRUCIFORM LIGAMENT {cruciate} (details) 1. Transverse part: ("transv. lig. of atlas") -attchs @ bth ends to the arch of atlas, passing post. to the dens -Holds the dens against the ant. arch of atlas. 2. Vertical portion: runs from body of axis to occipital bone.
APICAL LIGAMENT {cruciate} b/t dens and occipital bone
ALAR from sides of dens to edge on ant. aspect of foramen magnum. Will restrict rotation.
Superficial fascia is continuous with... deep fascia
DEEP FASCIA (details) - bound to underlying muscle. -envelops the latissimus dorsi m. and the trapezius m. -thoracolumbar fascia
THORACOLUMBAR FASCIA - covers deep mm. -abdominal mm. attachmt through fascia -made frm aponeuroses of lat dorsi, transv. abdominus, and internal oblique.
CUTANEOUS NERVES of superficial back -dorsal rami of spinal nn. -posterior branches of lateral cutaneous nn. -no cutaneous innervation from C1.
How does the scapula move? -Elevation and depression. -Protaction and Retraction. -Upward and Downward Rotation.
SUPERFICIAL MUSCLES OF THE BACK (Layer 1) Trapezius, and Latissimus Dorsi. (Layer 2) Levator Scapulae, Rhomboid Minor, Rhomboid Major. (Layer 3) Serratus Posterior Superior, Serratus Posterior Inferior.
TRIANGLE OF AUSCULTATION BORDERS:lat. edge of trap., superior edge of latissimus dorsi, lower part of vertebral border of scap. *At the level of the 6th intercostal space. Covered only by rhomboid maj. Can hear respiratory sounds.
LUMBAR TRIANGLE BORDERS: inferior edge of latissimus dorsi, posterior edge of external oblique, and iliac crest
Deep back muscles are covered with a layer of __________ ___________. deep fascia
In the _(1)___ thoracic and _(2)___ region the deep fascia is called the _____(3)______ _________ (1)-lower (2)-lumbar (3)- thoracolumbar fascia
General Grouping of Deep Back Muscles -Splenius -Erector Spinae -Transversospinalis Muscles -Segmental Muscles
ALL deep back muscles are innervated by _______ ________ _________ dorsal primary rami
If both of these muscles contract the head will tilt back. With unilateral contraction the head is rotated in that direction -Splenius Cervicis -Splenius Capitis
What is an aponeurosis? broad flat tendon (attachment)
Name the three parts of the Erector Spinae. -Iliocostalis -Longissimus -Spinalis
Which of the three parts of the erector spinae is the least developed? spinalis
Name the Transversospinalis Muscles -Semispinalis -Multifidus -Rotators
Name the parts of the Semispinalis mm. thoracic, cervicis, capitis
What transversospinalis muscle crosses 1 or 2 segments? Rotators
What transversospinalis muscle crosses 2-4 segments? Multifidus
What transversospinalis muscle crosses 4-6 segments? Semispinalis
Of the three listed below: Which one is well developed in cervical area but not seen in the lumbar area? Semispinalis, multifidus, rotators Semispinalis
Action of all the transversospinalis mm. is rotation to the ____________ side. opposite
SEGMENTAL MUSCLES -extend from one vertebra to the next. -in cervical and lumbar regions. -2 Groups: interspinales and intertransversarii.
Suboccipital Muscles connect what? atlast and axis to each other and to the skull.
Name the SUBOCCIPITAL MUSCLES -Obliquus Capitis Inferior -Obliquus Capitis Superior -Rectus Capitis Posterior Major -Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor
SUBOCCIPITAL TRIANGLE BORDERS: obliquus capitis inf., obliq. capitis. sup., rectus capitis post. maj. CONTENTS: post. arch of atlas, vertebral artery, suboccip. n (C1) [no cutaneous branches]
The GREATER OCCIPITAL NERVE (C2 dorsal ramus) emerges from under __(1)___ ______ ______, traverses the _____(2)_______ triangle, pierces the ___(3)___ ______ on its way towards the scalp where it is associated with the ____(4)__ ______. 1-obliquus capitis inferior. 2-suboccipital triangle. 3-semispinalis capitis. 4-occipital artery.
What nerve comes from lower down, travels up, and exits at back top of skull? Greater Occipital Nerve
What muscles helps to pull/extend arm down? Latissimus Dorsi
What ligament holds the dens against the anterior arch of the atlas? Transverse part of the cruciform (cruciate) ligament
What aponeuroses make up the thoracolumbar fascia? aponeuroses of latissimus dorsi, transversus abdominus, and internal oblique.
Created by: christajtodd